Thomas N Kakuda

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OBJECTIVE This paper reviews the function of the mitochondria and the mechanisms by which nucleoside and nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) cause mitochondrial toxicity. BACKGROUND Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) reduces rates of morbidity and mortality due to HIV disease. However, long-term treatment with these drugs may be(More)
OBJECTIVES To demonstrate the feasibility of a concentration-controlled approach to combination antiretroviral therapy, and to compare the virological responses and safety of this strategy versus conventional fixed-dose therapy. DESIGN A prospective, randomized, 52 week, open-label trial of concentration-controlled compared with conventional dose(More)
OBJECTIVES Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) are used in virtually all anti-HIV regimens. Clinical response depends on the intracellular formation of the pharmacologically active triphosphate moiety. Our objective was to quantify the pharmacological characteristics of zidovudine and lamivudine triphosphate in HIV-infected(More)
The effects of darunavir-ritonavir at 600 and 100 mg twice daily (b.i.d.) alone, 200 mg of etravirine b.i.d. alone, or 600 and 100 mg of darunavir-ritonavir b.i.d. with 200 mg etravirine b.i.d. at steady state on the steady-state pharmacokinetics of maraviroc, and vice versa, in healthy volunteers were investigated in two phase I, randomized, two-period(More)
The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the antiretroviral agent etravirine were evaluated in two phase III clinical trials. Pharmacokinetic data were available in 577 patients randomized to receive etravirine. The mean (SD) population-pharmacokinetics-derived area under the concentration-time curve at 12 h (AUC(12 h)) and concentration at 0 h (C(0 h))(More)
Nucleoside- and nucleotide-analogue reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) require intracellular phosphorylation for anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) activity and toxicity. Long-term toxicities associated with NRTIs may be related to overactivation of this process. In vitro experiments have shown increased rates of NRTI and endogenous nucleoside(More)
Etravirine is a next-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) developed for the treatment of HIV-1 infection. It has a high genetic barrier to the emergence of viral resistance, and maintains its antiviral activity in the presence of common NNRTI mutations. The pharmacokinetics of etravirine in HIV-infected patients at the(More)
Conventional antiretroviral therapy involves administration of standard fixed doses to adults and adolescents. This approach ignores interindividual variability in pharmacokinetics and results in substantial differences in systemic concentrations among patients. Thus, variability in systemic concentrations contributes to variability in response to therapy.(More)
BACKGROUND Etravirine, a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) active against NNRTI-resistant HIV, is an inducer of CYP3A4 and an inhibitor of CYP2C9/19. STUDY DESIGN The effect of etravirine on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of ethinylestradiol and norethindrone was assessed in 30 HIV-negative females. Following a run-in cycle(More)
OBJECTIVES Etravirine is a substrate and inducer of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A and a substrate and inhibitor of CYP2C9 and CYPC2C19. Darunavir/ritonavir is a substrate and inhibitor of CYP3A. Artemether and lumefantrine are primarily metabolized by CYP3A; artemether is also metabolized to a lesser extent by CYP2B6, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19. Artemether has an active(More)