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Although high-precision isotope determinations are routine in many areas of natural science, the instrument principles for their measurements have remained remarkably unchanged for four decades. The introduction of continuous-flow techniques to isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) instrumentation has precipitated a rapid expansion in capabilities for(More)
Docosahexaenoate is important for normal neural development. It can be derived from alpha-linolenate, but carbon from alpha-linolenate is also recycled into de novo lipid synthesis. The objective of this study was to quantify the amount of alpha-linolenate used to produce docosahexaenoate versus lipids synthesized de novo that accumulate in the brain of the(More)
The dietary bioequivalence of alpha-linolenic (LNA) and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) as substrates for brain and retinal n-3 fatty acid accretion during the brain growth spurt is reported for neonatal baboons who consumed a long-chain-polyunsaturate free commercial human infant formula with a n-6/n-3 ratio of 10:1. Neonates received oral doses of 13C-labeled(More)
Absorption and metabolism of [13C]9-cis-beta-carotene ([13C]9c beta C) was studied in three subjects after a single oral dose. Subjects given 1.0 mg [13C]beta-carotene (mean: 99.4% 9-cis-beta-carotene, 0.6% all-trans-beta-carotene; dose A) had substantial concentrations of [13C]all-trans-beta-carotene ([13C]tr beta C) and [13C]all-trans retinol(More)
Intramolecular carbon isotope distributions reflect details of the origin of organic compounds and may record the status of complex systems, such as environmental or physiological states. A strategy is reported here for high-precision determination of 13C/12C ratios at specific positions in organic compounds separated from complex mixtures. Free radical(More)
This protocol describes how to form a 3D cell culture with explicit, endothelialized microvessels. The approach leads to fully enclosed, perfusable vessels in a bioremodelable hydrogel (type I collagen). The protocol uses microfabrication to enable user-defined geometries of the vascular network and microfluidic perfusion to control mass transfer and(More)
Linoleic acid plasma kinetics in pregnant baboons and its conversion to long chain polyunsaturates (LCP) in fetal organs is characterized over a 29-day period using stable isotope tracers. Pregnant baboons consumed an LCP-free diet and received [U-13C]linoleic acid (18:2*) in their third trimester of gestation. In maternal plasma, 18:2* dropped to near(More)
As compared to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques, nanoflow HPLC exhibits improved sensitivity and limits of detection. However, nanoflow HPLC suffers from low throughput due to instrument failure (e.g., fitting fatigue and trapping column failure), limiting the utility of the technique for clinical and industrial(More)
Tensiometers sense the chemical potential of water (or water potential, Ψw) in an external phase of interest by measuring the pressure in an internal volume of liquid water in equilibrium with that phase. For sub-saturated phases, the internal pressure is below atmospheric and frequently negative; the liquid is under tension. Here, we present the initial(More)
We report the development and characterization of a novel, vendor-neutral ultra-high pressure-compatible (~10,000 p.s.i.) LC-MS source. This device is the first to make automated connections with user-packed capillary traps, columns, and capillary emitters. The source uses plastic rectangular inserts (referred to here as cartridges) where individual(More)