Thomas Michiels

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After incubation at 37 degrees C in the absence of Ca2+ ions, pathogenic strains of Yersinia spp. release large amounts of a set of plasmid-encoded proteins called Yops. The secretion of these proteins, involved in pathogenicity, occurs via a mechanism that involves neither the removal of a signal sequence nor the recognition of a C-terminal domain.(More)
Interferons (IFN) exert antiviral, immunomodulatory and cytostatic activities. IFN-alpha/beta (type I IFN) and IFN-lambda (type III IFN) bind distinct receptors, but regulate similar sets of genes and exhibit strikingly similar biological activities. We analyzed to what extent the IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-lambda systems overlap in vivo in terms of expression(More)
Interferon (IFN)-lambda 1, -lambda 2, and -lambda 3 are the latest members of the class II cytokine family and were shown to have antiviral activity. Their receptor is composed of two chains, interleukin-28R/likely interleukin or cytokine or receptor 2 (IL-28R/LICR2) and IL-10R beta, and mediates the tyrosine phosphorylation of STAT1, STAT2, STAT3, and(More)
This review is dedicated to the influence of type I IFNs (also called IFN-alpha/beta) in the central nervous system (CNS). Studies in mice with type I IFN receptor or IFN-beta gene deficiency have highlighted the importance of the type I IFN system against CNS viral infections and non-viral autoimmune disorders. Direct antiviral effects of type I IFNs(More)
The virulence functions of Yersinia enterocolitica include the pYV-encoded Yop proteins and YadA adhesin as well as the chromosome-encoded enterotoxin, Yst. The yop and yadA genes form a temperature-activated regulon controlled by the transcriptional activator VirF. Gene virF, also localized on pYV, is itself thermoinduced in the absence of other pYV genes.(More)
Upon incubation at 37 degrees C in the absence of Ca2+ ions, pathogenic strains of the genus Yersinia cease growing and produce large amounts of a series of plasmid-encoded proteins involved in pathogenicity. These proteins, called Yops (for Yersinia outer membrane proteins), are detected in both the outer membrane fraction and the culture supernatant. We(More)
Virus-infected cells secrete a broad range of interferons (IFN) which confer resistance to yet uninfected cells by triggering the synthesis of antiviral factors. The relative contributions of the various IFN subtypes to innate immunity against virus infections remain elusive. IFN-alpha, IFN-beta, and other type I IFN molecules signal through a common,(More)
La Crosse virus (LACV) is a mosquito-transmitted member of the Bunyaviridae family that causes severe encephalitis in children. For the LACV nonstructural protein NSs, previous overexpression studies with mammalian cells had suggested two different functions, namely induction of apoptosis and inhibition of RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we demonstrate that(More)
Theiler's virus causes a persistent and demyelinating infection of the central nervous system of the mouse, which is one of the best animal models to study multiple sclerosis. This review focuses on the mechanism of persistence. The virus infects neurons for a few weeks and then shifts to white matter, where it persists in glial cells and macrophages.(More)
Type I interferons, also referred to as IFN-alpha/beta, form the first line of defense against viral infections. Major IFN-alpha/beta producers in the periphery are the plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). Constitutive expression of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF)-7 enables pDCs to rapidly synthesize large amounts of IFN-alpha/beta after viral infection. In(More)