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Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons for rapid impulse conduction and contribute to normal axonal functions in the central nervous system. In multiple sclerosis, demyelination is caused by autoimmune attacks, but the role of oligodendroglial cells in disease progression and axon degeneration is unclear. Here we show that oligodendrocytes harbor peroxisomes(More)
MRI is routinely used for in vivo detection of multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Histopathological correlates of MRI signal alterations are still poorly defined. In the present study, we describe a mouse model of MS presenting with inflammatory brain lesions. During the acute disease phase, two independent lesion patterns were identified by T1- and(More)
Functional mapping of the lateral lemniscus and the superior olivary complex as part of the auditory pathway was accomplished for the first time in mice in vivo using manganese-enhanced MRI (2.35T, 3D FLASH, 117 microm isotropic resolution). These and other auditory centers in the brainstem presented with pronounced signal enhancements after systemic(More)
This work presents three-dimensional MRI studies of rodent brain in vivo after focal and systemic administration of MnCl2. Particular emphasis is paid to the morphology and dynamics of Mn2+-induced MRI signal enhancements, and the physiological mechanisms underlying cerebral Mn2+ uptake and distribution. It turns out that intravitreal and intrahippocampal(More)
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by myelin-oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) is a model for multiple sclerosis. Here, EAE was induced in four common marmosets by 250-300 microg recombinant rat MOG. In addition to a detailed disability scoring, T2- and T1-weighted high-resolution 3D MRI was(More)
Protein kinase B is implicated in many crucial cellular processes, such as metabolism, apoptosis and cell proliferation. In contrast to Pkb(alpha) and Pkb(beta)-deficient mice, Pkb(gamma)(-/-) mice are viable, show no growth retardation and display normal glucose metabolism. However, in adult Pkb(gamma)mutant mice, brain size and weight are dramatically(More)
Early hypotheses on the pathophysiology of major depression were based on aberrant intrasynaptic concentrations of mainly the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine. However, recent neuroimaging studies have demonstrated selective structural changes across various limbic and nonlimbic circuits in the brains of depressed patients. In addition,(More)
In humans, neurotrauma is suspected to cause brain atrophy and accelerate slowly progressive neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease or schizophrenia. However, a direct link between brain injury and subsequent delayed global neurodegeneration has remained elusive. Here we show that juvenile (4-week-old) mice that are given a discrete(More)
Follow-up T(1)-weighted 3D gradient-echo MRI (2.35 T) of murine brain in vivo (N = 5) at 120 microm isotropic resolution revealed spatially distinct signal increases 6-48 hr after subcutaneous application of MnCl(2) (20 mg/kg). The effects result from a shortening of the water proton T(1) relaxation time due to the presence of unchelated paramagnetic Mn(2+)(More)
The morphology and function of the hippocampal system of C57BL/6J mice (n = 8) was studied in vivo using T1-weighted 3D magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (117 microm isotropic resolution) after bilateral injection of MnCl(2) (0.25 microl, 5 or 200 mM) into the posterior hippocampal formation. The neuronal uptake of the T1-shortening Mn(2+) ions resulted in a(More)