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In vivo concentrations of cerebral metabolites were obtained by means of 52 single-voxel, localized proton magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic examinations of different regions of the brain performed in 26 healthy adults aged 21-32 years. The study was performed at 2.0 T with use of a circularly polarized head coil to ensure homogeneous radio-frequency(More)
Stress-induced structural remodeling in the adult hippocampus, involving debranching and shortening of dendrites and suppression of neurogenesis, provides a cellular basis for understanding the impairment of neural plasticity in the human hippocampus in depressive illness. Accordingly, reversal of structural remodeling may be a desirable goal for(More)
The neuropeptide substance P and its receptor, the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK(1)R) have been proposed as possible targets for new antidepressant therapies. The present study investigated the effect of the NK(1)R antagonist L-760,735 and the tricyclic antidepressant clomipramine in the chronic psychosocial stress paradigm of adult male tree shrews. Animals(More)
Protein kinase B is implicated in many crucial cellular processes, such as metabolism, apoptosis and cell proliferation. In contrast to Pkb(alpha) and Pkb(beta)-deficient mice, Pkb(gamma)(-/-) mice are viable, show no growth retardation and display normal glucose metabolism. However, in adult Pkb(gamma)mutant mice, brain size and weight are dramatically(More)
This work demonstrates technical approaches to high-quality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of small structures of the mouse brain in vivo. It turns out that excellent soft-tissue contrast requires the reduction of partial volume effects by using 3D MRI at high (isotropic) resolution with linear voxel dimensions of about 100-150 microm. The long T(2)*(More)
Functional mapping of the lateral lemniscus and the superior olivary complex as part of the auditory pathway was accomplished for the first time in mice in vivo using manganese-enhanced MRI (2.35T, 3D FLASH, 117 microm isotropic resolution). These and other auditory centers in the brainstem presented with pronounced signal enhancements after systemic(More)
This work presents three-dimensional MRI studies of rodent brain in vivo after focal and systemic administration of MnCl2. Particular emphasis is paid to the morphology and dynamics of Mn2+-induced MRI signal enhancements, and the physiological mechanisms underlying cerebral Mn2+ uptake and distribution. It turns out that intravitreal and intrahippocampal(More)
Noninvasive imaging of the brain of animal models demands the detection of increasingly smaller structures by in vivo MRI. The purpose of this work was to elucidate the spatial resolution and structural contrast that can be obtained for studying the brain of C57BL/6J mice by optimized T2-weighted fast spin-echo MRI at 9.4 T. As a prerequisite for(More)
The brain morphology and chemistry of seven children with late infantile (4/7) and juvenile (3/7) forms of metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD) were investigated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and localized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). Patients who were examined at least 6 months after the onset of symptoms (6/7) had severe(More)
Oligodendrocytes myelinate axons for rapid impulse conduction and contribute to normal axonal functions in the central nervous system. In multiple sclerosis, demyelination is caused by autoimmune attacks, but the role of oligodendroglial cells in disease progression and axon degeneration is unclear. Here we show that oligodendrocytes harbor peroxisomes(More)