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OBJECTIVE Ventilator-dependent preterm infants are often treated with a prolonged tapering course of dexamethasone to decrease the risk and severity of chronic lung disease. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of this therapy on developmental outcome at 1 year of age. METHODS Study participants were 118 very low birth weight infants who,(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal was to determine whether the risk of death or moderate/severe disability in term infants with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy increases with relatively high esophageal or skin temperature occurring between 6 and 78 hours after birth. METHODS This was an observational secondary study within the National Institute of Child Health and(More)
OBJECTIVE This report presents data from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network on care of and morbidity and mortality rates for very low birth weight infants, according to gestational age (GA). METHODS Perinatal/neonatal data were collected for 9575 infants of extremely low GA (22-28(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have suggested that the incidence of retinopathy is lower in preterm infants with exposure to reduced levels of oxygenation than in those exposed to higher levels of oxygenation. However, it is unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate to minimize retinopathy without increasing adverse outcomes. METHODS We(More)
BACKGROUND Extremely low gestational age newborns (ELGANs) are at increased risk for structural and functional brain abnormalities. AIM To identify factors that contribute to brain damage in ELGANs. STUDY DESIGN Multi-center cohort study. SUBJECTS We enrolled 1506 ELGANs born before 28 weeks gestation at 14 sites; 1201 (80%) survived to 2 years(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify risk factors for chronic lung disease (CLD) in a population-based cohort of very low birth weight infants, born in an era of surfactant usage. We specifically investigated the effects of antenatal steroids, nosocomial infection, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), fluid management, and ventilator support strategies. METHODS Data were(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that children born preterm are more likely to screen positive on the M-CHAT for an autism spectrum disorder. STUDY DESIGN We compared the M-CHAT positive rate of those with cerebral palsy, cognitive impairment, and vision and hearing impairments to those without such deficits. RESULTS Relative to children who could walk,(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the hypothesis that elevated levels of inflammation-related proteins in early postnatal blood predict impaired mental and motor development in extremely preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN We measured concentrations of 25 inflammation-related proteins in blood collected on postnatal days 1, 7, and 14 from 939 infants born before 28 weeks(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if selected pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines and/or mediators of inflammation reported to be related to the development of cerebral palsy (CP) predict neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely low birth weight infants. STUDY DESIGN Infants with birth weights ≤1000 g (n = 1067) had blood samples collected at birth and(More)
Neonatal inflammation is associated with perinatal brain damage. We evaluated to what extent elevated blood levels of inflammation-related proteins supplement information about the risk of impaired early cognitive function provided by inflammation-related illnesses. From 800 infants born before the 28th week of gestation, we collected blood spots on days 1,(More)