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The anticalmodulin drug, W-7 [N-(6 aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulphonamide] specifically inhibits the voltage-dependent Ca-current of Paramecium as well as the behavioural consequence of Ca2+ influx, backward swimming. The dechlorinated analogue, W-5, is four to five times less effective. Analysis of membrane currents under voltage clamp shows that(More)
The analysis of the voltage-sensitive Ca++ channel of the unicellular eucaryote, Paramecium has been extended to a biochemical level based on recent observations that the transfer of cytoplasm from wild-type cells into mutants lacking Ca++-channel function ("pawn" in P. tetraurelia and "CNR" in P. caudatum) causes mutant cells to regain Ca++-channel(More)
A combination of genetics, biochemistry, and biophysics was used to show that calmodulin is involved in the regulation of an ion channel. Calmodulin restored the Ca2+-dependent K+ current in pantophobiac, a mutant in Paramecium that lacks this current. The restoration of the current occurred within 2 hours after the injection of 1 picogram of wild-type(More)
There is substantial evidence that impairment of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ-coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) levels and activity play an important role in Huntington's disease (HD) pathogenesis. We tested whether pharmacologic treatment with the pan-PPAR agonist bezafibrate would correct a deficiency of PGC-1α and exert beneficial effects in(More)
The isolated Ca2+ current from Paramecium caudatum was examined under voltage clamp with long conditioning depolarizations lasting for up to 5 min. The isolated transient Ca2+ current inactivates with tens of milliseconds due to Ca2+ -dependent Ca2+ -channel inactivation (Brehm & Eckert, 1978). When this fast inactivation was blocked by internally delivered(More)
We investigated the ability of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) to activate PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) in the brain, liver and brown adipose tissue (BAT) of the NLS-N171-82Q transgenic mouse model of Huntington's disease (HD). In the striatum of the HD mice, the baseline levels of PGC-1alpha, NRF1, NRF2, Tfam, COX-II, PPARdelta, CREB and(More)
BACKGROUND Reduced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1α) gene expression has been observed in striatal cell lines, transgenic mouse models of Huntington's disease (HD), and brain tissue from HD patients. As this protein is a key transcription regulator of the expression of many mitochondrial proteins, these observations(More)
BACKGROUND Huntington's disease (HD) is associated with impaired energy metabolism in the brain. Creatine kinase (CK) catalyzes ATP-dependent phosphorylation of creatine (Cr) into phosphocreatine (PCr), thereby serving as readily available high-capacity spatial and temporal ATP buffering. OBJECTIVE Substantial evidence supports a specific role of the(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is an incurable neurological disorder caused by an abnormal glutamine repeat expansion in the huntingtin (Htt) protein. In the present studies, we investigated the role of Transducers of Regulated cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein activity (TORCs) in HD, since TORCs play an important role in the expression of the(More)