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BACKGROUND During B lymphocyte development the E2A gene is a critical regulator of cell proliferation and differentiation. With regards to the immunoglobulin genes the E2A proteins contribute to the regulation of gene rearrangement, expression and class switch recombination. We are now using the chicken cell line DT40 as a model system to further analyse(More)
In transplantation, direct-pathway CD8 T cells that recognize alloantigen on donor cells require CD4 help for activation and cytolytic function. The ability of indirect-pathway CD4 T cells to provide this help remains unexplained, because a fundamental requirement for epitope linkage is seemingly broken. The simultaneous presentation, by host dendritic(More)
BACKGROUND The development of autoantibody after heart transplantation is increasingly associated with poor graft outcome, but what triggers its development and whether it has a direct causative role in graft rejection is not clear. Here, we study the development of antinuclear autoantibody in an established mouse model of heart allograft vasculopathy. (More)
The durable alloantibody responses that develop in organ transplant patients indicate long-lived plasma cell output from T-dependent germinal centers (GCs), but which of the two pathways of CD4 T cell allorecognition is responsible for generating allospecific T follicular helper cells remains unclear. This was addressed by reconstituting T cell-deficient(More)
Tertiary lymphoid organs (TLOs) may develop within allografts, but their contribution to graft rejection remains unclear. Here, we study a mouse model of autoantibody-mediated cardiac allograft vasculopathy to clarify the alloimmune responses mediated by intragraft TLOs and whether blocking lymphotoxin-β-receptor (LTβR) signaling, a pathway essential for(More)
Expression of the rearranged chicken immunoglobulin light chain (IgL) gene is regulated by a V gene promoter, a matrix attachment region (MAR) in the J-C intron and an enhancer downstream of the Ig constant region. Using knockout analysis, we demonstrate that the 3'-enhancer is not only required for gene activation but is also essential for the maintenance(More)
Essential help for long-lived alloantibody responses is theoretically provided only by CD4 T cells that recognize target alloantigen, processed and presented by the allospecific B cell. We demonstrate that in an alloresponse to multiple MHC disparities, cognate help for class-switched alloantibody may also be provided by CD4 T cells specific for a second(More)
Fcγ receptors (FcγR) provide important immunoregulation. Targeting inhibitory FcγRIIb may therefore prolong allograft survival, but its role in transplantation has not been addressed. FcγRIIb signaling was examined in murine models of acute or chronic cardiac allograft rejection by transplanting recipients that either lacked FcγRIIb expression(More)
: The emergence of B-cell-activating factor and its related family members as critical mediators for B-cell development and survival has led to the development of a number of new agents aimed at controlling complicated chronic pathologies with an underlying humoral component. Currently being trialed in autoimmunity, these agents also hold much promise for(More)
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