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The mechanisms controlling axon guidance are of fundamental importance in understanding brain development. Growing corticospinal and somatosensory axons cross the midline in the medulla to reach their targets and thus form the basis of contralateral motor control and sensory input. The motor and sensory projections appeared uncrossed in patients with(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the neurologic, neuroradiologic, and electrophysiologic features of autosomal recessive horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis (HGPPS), a syndrome caused by mutation of the ROBO3 gene on chromosome 11 and associated with defective decussation of certain brainstem neuronal systems. METHODS The authors examined 11 individuals(More)
Isolated strabismus affects 1-5% of the general population. Most forms of strabismus are multifactorial in origin; although there is probably an inherited component, the genetics of these disorders remain unclear. The congenital fibrosis syndromes (CFS) represent a subset of monogenic isolated strabismic disorders that are characterized by restrictive(More)
Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) latencies, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities (CVs), and F-wave latenies were measured in 15 elderly normal subjects (mean age 74.1 years), and the results were used to derive indirect estimates of spinal cord CVs. These measurements were compared to those from 15 younger normal adults (mean age 31.6 years),(More)
Genetic studies of the Arabian Peninsula are scarce even though the region was the center of ancient trade routes and empires and may have been the southern corridor for the earliest human migration from Africa to Asia. A total of 120 mtDNA Saudi Arab lineages were analyzed for HVSI/II sequences and for haplogroup confirmatory coding diagnostic positions. A(More)
We describe nine previously unreported individuals from six families who have homozygous mutations of HOXA1 and either the Bosley-Salih-Alorainy syndrome (BSAS) or the Athabascan brainstem dysgenesis syndrome (ABDS). Congenital heart disease was present in four BSAS patients, two of whom had neither deafness nor horizontal gaze restriction, thus raising the(More)
PURPOSE Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of enzymes that inactivate xenobiotics and endogenous end products formed as secondary metabolites during oxidative stress. In humans, GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletion genotypes (T0M1, T1M0, and T0M0) are associated with a variety of pathologic processes including certain ophthalmologic diseases. METHODS We(More)
We report on two siblings (half brothers on the paternal side) with a syndrome consisting of delayed development, cardiac anomalies, chest deformity, hip rotation, metatarsus adductus, genital hypoplasia, dysmorphic face, depressed nasal bridge, mental retardation, and speech delay. All metaphases examined showed a normal karyotype in the patients, their(More)
We evaluated 37 patients with hemifacial spasm and 16 age-matched control patients with other neurological disorders using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, MR angiography, and MR tomographic angiography. MR tomographic angiography is a new technique using computer reconstruction of MR angiographic images to create coronal angiotomes that display tissue and(More)
Fifteen patients with clinical presentations compatible with idiopathic inflammatory orbital pseudotumor were examined by CT and MR imaging to determine if MR could add specificity to the CT appearance of this entity. MR was performed on a 1.5 T system, using surface-coil and head-coil techniques. Idiopathic pseudotumor was confirmed in nine patients on the(More)