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The mechanisms controlling axon guidance are of fundamental importance in understanding brain development. Growing corticospinal and somatosensory axons cross the midline in the medulla to reach their targets and thus form the basis of contralateral motor control and sensory input. The motor and sensory projections appeared uncrossed in patients with(More)
We report on two siblings (half brothers on the paternal side) with a syndrome consisting of delayed development, cardiac anomalies, chest deformity, hip rotation, metatarsus adductus, genital hypoplasia, dysmorphic face, depressed nasal bridge, mental retardation, and speech delay. All metaphases examined showed a normal karyotype in the patients, their(More)
Somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) latencies, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities (CVs), and F-wave latenies were measured in 15 elderly normal subjects (mean age 74.1 years), and the results were used to derive indirect estimates of spinal cord CVs. These measurements were compared to those from 15 younger normal adults (mean age 31.6 years),(More)
Isolated strabismus affects 1-5% of the general population. Most forms of strabismus are multifactorial in origin; although there is probably an inherited component, the genetics of these disorders remain unclear. The congenital fibrosis syndromes (CFS) represent a subset of monogenic isolated strabismic disorders that are characterized by restrictive(More)
We identified homozygous truncating mutations in HOXA1 in three genetically isolated human populations. The resulting phenotype includes horizontal gaze abnormalities, deafness, facial weakness, hypoventilation, vascular malformations of the internal carotid arteries and cardiac outflow tract, mental retardation and autism spectrum disorder. This is the(More)
PURPOSE Three congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles phenotypes (CFEOM1-3) have been identified. Each represents a specific form of paralytic strabismus characterized by congenital restrictive ophthalmoplegia, often with accompanying ptosis. It has been demonstrated that CFEOM1 results from mutations in KIF21A and CFEOM2 from mutations in PHOX2A.(More)
OBJECTIVE To review the neurologic, neuroradiologic, and electrophysiologic features of autosomal recessive horizontal gaze palsy and progressive scoliosis (HGPPS), a syndrome caused by mutation of the ROBO3 gene on chromosome 11 and associated with defective decussation of certain brainstem neuronal systems. METHODS The authors examined 11 individuals(More)
We describe nine previously unreported individuals from six families who have homozygous mutations of HOXA1 and either the Bosley-Salih-Alorainy syndrome (BSAS) or the Athabascan brainstem dysgenesis syndrome (ABDS). Congenital heart disease was present in four BSAS patients, two of whom had neither deafness nor horizontal gaze restriction, thus raising the(More)
PURPOSE OF REVIEW We review the congenital and genetic diagnoses that are currently included in the congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders (CCDDs). RECENT FINDINGS Recent literature contains new genotypic and phenotypic descriptions of Duane retraction syndrome, Moebius syndrome, and other CCDDs. New genes which when mutated can result in CCDD have(More)
PURPOSE Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are a family of enzymes that inactivate xenobiotics and endogenous end products formed as secondary metabolites during oxidative stress. In humans, GSTT1 and GSTM1 deletion genotypes (T0M1, T1M0, and T0M0) are associated with a variety of pathologic processes including certain ophthalmologic diseases. METHODS We(More)