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AIMS For the first time, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) introduces non-substance addictions as psychiatric diagnoses. The aims of this paper are to (i) present the main controversies surrounding the decision to include internet gaming disorder, but not internet addiction more globally, as a non-substance addiction in the(More)
In this article, results of a German nationwide survey (KFN schools survey 2007/2008) are presented. The controlled sample of 44,610 male and female ninth-graders was carried out in 2007 and 2008 by the Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony (KFN). According to a newly developed screening instrument (KFN-CSAS-II), which was presented to every(More)
OBJECTIVES Development of a brief instrument (F-SozU K-6) for the measurement of perceived social support in epidemiologic contexts by shortening a well-established German questionnaire (F-SozU K-14). STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING The development of the F-SozU K-6 consisted of two phases; phase 1: the F-SozU K-14 was presented to a general population sample(More)
Background: This study addresses the need for methodologically sound, brief screening procedures (e. g., the PHQ-4) which need to be validated for refugees in their native languages. Method: A cohort of Syrian refugees in the state of Lower Saxony was investigated with the PHQ-4 translated into Standard Arabic language by a professional translation bureau.(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is included as a condition for further study in Section 3 of the DSM-5. Nine criteria were proposed with a threshold of five or more criteria recommended for diagnosis. The aims of this study were to assess how the specific criteria contribute to diagnosis and to estimate prevalence rates of IGD based on(More)
Androgen-dependent signaling regulates the growth of the fingers on the human hand during embryogenesis. A higher androgen load results in lower 2D:4D (second digit to fourth digit) ratio values. Prenatal androgen exposure also impacts brain development. 2D:4D values are usually lower in males and are viewed as a proxy of male brain organization. Here, we(More)
In work done at the German Criminological Research Institute of Lower Saxony (KFN) various methods have been used to investigate how specific inappropriate media usage patterns affect academic performance in children and adolescents. The findings are paralleled by current international research indicating a negative relationship between these two variables.(More)
The use of interactive screen media is widespread and for some users leads to pathological symptoms that are phenomenologically similar to signs of addictive disorders. Addictive use of computer games and other Internet applications, such as social media can be distinguished. In the past standard criteria to classify this new disorder were lacking. In(More)
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to develop, evaluate, and standardize a short form of the well-established Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire (EDE-Q). The newly developed EDE-Q8 was required to reflect the originally postulated structure of the EDE-Q. METHOD Data were drawn from two nationwide representative population surveys in Germany: a(More)