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B cells producing high-affinity antibodies are destined to differentiate into memory B cells and plasma cells, but the mechanisms leading to those differentiation pathways are mostly unknown. Here we report that the transcription factor IRF4 is required for the generation of plasma cells. Transgenic mice with conditional deletion of Irf4 in germinal center(More)
Cellular senescence has been theorized to oppose neoplastic transformation triggered by activation of oncogenic pathways in vitro, but the relevance of senescence in vivo has not been established. The PTEN and p53 tumour suppressors are among the most commonly inactivated or mutated genes in human cancer including prostate cancer. Although they are(More)
Cell-cycle arrest, apoptosis, and senescence are widely accepted as the major mechanisms by which p53 inhibits tumor formation. Nevertheless, it remains unclear whether they are the rate-limiting steps in tumor suppression. Here, we have generated mice bearing lysine to arginine mutations at one (p53(K117R)) or three (p53(3KR); K117R+K161R+K162R) of p53(More)
The cation-dependent and cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptors (CD- and CI-MPRs) bind the phosphomannosyl recognition marker of lysosomal hydrolases, but in mammals the latter also interacts with insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II). While IGF signaling is mediated by the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF1R), the type 2 receptor (IGF2R/CI-MPR) serves(More)
In mice, the imprinted Igf2 gene (expressed from the paternal allele), which encodes a growth-promoting factor (IGF-II), is linked closely to the reciprocally imprinted H19 locus on chromosome 7. Also imprinted (expressed from the maternal allele) is the Igf2r gene on chromsome 17 encoding the type 2 IGF receptor that is involved in degradation of excess(More)
Mutations of the human BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes encoding tumor suppressors have been implicated in inherited predisposition to breast and other cancers. Disruption of the homologous mouse genes Brca1 and Brca2 by targeting showed that they both have indispensable roles during embryogenesis, because nullizygous embryos become developmentally retarded and(More)
The mammalian ortholog of the Drosophila MOF (males absent on the first) gene product is a histone H4 lysine 16-specific acetyltransferase. Recent studies have shown that depletion of human MOF (hMOF) in human cell lines leads to genomic instability, spontaneous chromosomal aberrations, cell cycle defects, altered nuclear morphology, reduced transcription(More)
In higher eukaryotes, the transport of soluble lysosomal enzymes involves the recognition of their mannose 6-phosphate signal by two receptors: the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II receptor (CI-MPR) and the cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate receptor (CD-MPR). It is not known why these two different proteins are present(More)
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is the result of an autoimmune destruction of pancreatic beta cells. The cellular and molecular defects that cause the disease remain unknown. Pluripotent cells generated from patients with T1D would be useful for disease modeling. We show here that induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be generated from patients with T1D by(More)
Cis-platin is an effective anti-neoplastic agent, but it is also highly nephrotoxic. Here, we clearly identify the human organic cation transporter 2 (hOCT2) as the critical transporter for cis-platin nephrotoxicity in isolated human proximal tubules and offer a potential mechanism for reducing nephrotoxicity in clinical practice. Interaction of cis-platin(More)