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Long-term effects of training are important information for athletes, coaches, and scientists when associating changes in physiological indices with changes in performance. Therefore, this study monitored changes in aerobic and anaerobic capacities and performance in a group of elite cross-country skiers during a full sport season. Thirteen men (age, 23 ± 2(More)
AIM To investigate the effect of supplementing high-volume endurance training with heavy strength training on muscle adaptations and physical performance in elite cross country skiers. Eleven male (18-26 years) and eight female (18-27 years) were assigned to either a strength group (STR) (n=9) or a control group (CON) (n=10). STR performed strength training(More)
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplemental heavy strength training on muscle thickness and determinants of performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes. Seventeen well-trained Nordic Combined athletes were assigned to either usual training supplemented with heavy strength training (STR; n = 8) or to usual training(More)
We investigated the effects of adding heavy strength training to a high volume of endurance training on performance and related physiological determinants in junior female cross-country skiers. Sixteen well-trained athletes (17 ± 1 years, 60 ± 6 kg, 169 ± 6 cm, VO2max running: 60 ± 5 mL/kg/min) were assigned either to an intervention group (INT; n = 9) or a(More)
Due to the complexity of movement in cross-country skiing (XCS), the muscle activation patterns are not well elucidated. Previous studies have applied surface electromyography (SEMG); however, recent gains in three-dimensional (3D) imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) have rendered an alternative approach to investigate muscle(More)
PURPOSE As cross-country sprint competitions rely on maximal-effort durations of ∼3 min, a significant anaerobic energy contribution is expected. Anaerobic energy production during supramaximal exercise has been estimated in different sports from the accumulated oxygen deficit (ΣO₂ deficit) but, to date, not in cross-country skiing. Therefore, this study(More)
UNLABELLED Analyses of elite competitive performance provide useful information for research and practical applications. PURPOSE Here the authors analyze performance times of cross-country skiers at international competitions (World Cup, World Championship, and Olympics) in classical and free styles of women's and men's distance and sprint events, each(More)
PURPOSE Sprint- (≤1.8 km) and distance-skiing (≥15 km) performance rely heavily on aerobic capacity. However, in sprint skiing, due to the ~20% higher speed, anaerobic capacity contributes significantly. This study aimed to identify the possible anthropometric and physiological differences between elite male sprint and distance skiers. METHODS Six sprint(More)
PURPOSE The objective of this study is to compare the physiological capacity and training characteristics of the world's six highest ranked female cross-country skiers (world class (WC)) with those of six competitors of national class (NC). METHODS Immediately before the start of the competition season, all skiers performed three 5-min submaximal stages(More)
The present study investigated the contribution of performance on uphill, flat, and downhill sections to overall performance in an international 10-km classical time-trial in elite female cross-country skiers, as well as the relationships between performance on snow and laboratory-measured physiological variables in the double poling (DP) and diagonal (DIA)(More)