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Interaural time differences in the envelope of a sound (envelope ITDs) can potentially provide spatial information at high frequencies where interaural phase differences (IPDs) are not available. Interaural intensity differences (IIDs) also provide important spatial information at high frequencies. Both IIDs and envelope ITDs can influence spatial(More)
The pallid bat uses passive listening at low frequencies to detect and locate terrestrial prey and reserves its high-frequency echolocation for general orientation. While hunting, this bat must attend to both streams of information. These streams are processed through two parallel, functionally specialized pathways that are segregated at the level of the(More)
Winter recreation can displace ungulates to poor habitats, which may raise their energy expenditure and lower individual survivorship, causing population declines. Winter recreation could be benign, however, if animals habituate. Moreover, recreation creates trails. Traveling on them could reduce energy expenditure, thereby increasing ungulate survivorship(More)
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