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Interaural time differences in the envelope of a sound (envelope ITDs) can potentially provide spatial information at high frequencies where interaural phase differences (IPDs) are not available. Interaural intensity differences (IIDs) also provide important spatial information at high frequencies. Both IIDs and envelope ITDs can influence spatial(More)
The pallid bat uses passive listening at low frequencies to detect and locate terrestrial prey and reserves its high-frequency echolocation for general orientation. While hunting, this bat must attend to both streams of information. These streams are processed through two parallel, functionally specialized pathways that are segregated at the level of the(More)
Black bears spend several months each winter confined to a small space within their den without food or water. In nonhibernating mammals, these conditions typically result in severe muscle atrophy, causing a loss of strength and endurance. However, an initial study indicated that bears appeared to conserve strength while denning. We conducted an in vivo,(More)
Black bears spend four to seven months every winter confined to their den and anorexic. Despite potential for skeletal muscle atrophy and protein loss, bears appear to retain muscle integrity throughout winter dormancy. Other authors have suggested that bears are capable of net protein anabolism during this time. The present study was performed to test this(More)
Winter recreation can displace ungulates to poor habitats, which may raise their energy expenditure and lower individual survivorship, causing population declines. Winter recreation could be benign, however, if animals habituate. Moreover, recreation creates trails. Traveling on them could reduce energy expenditure, thereby increasing ungulate survivorship(More)
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