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The Pleistocene climatic oscillations are considered as a major driving force of intraspecific divergence and speciation. During Ice Ages, populations isolated in allopatric glacial refugia can experience differentiation in reproductive traits through divergence in selection regimes. This phenomenon may lead to reproductive isolation and dramatically(More)
Populations on islands often exhibit lower levels of genetic variation and ecomorphological divergence compared to their mainland relatives. While phenotypic differentiation in characters, such as size or shape among insular organisms, has been well studied, insular differentiation in quantitative reproductive traits involved in chemical communication has(More)
Social parasites exploit the colony resources of social insects. Some of them exploit the host colony as a food resource or as a shelter whereas other species also exploit the brood care behavior of their social host. Some of these species have even lost the worker caste and rely completely on the host's worker force to rear their offspring. To avoid host(More)
GCALIGNER 1.0 is a computer program designed to perform a preliminary data comparison matrix of chemical data obtained by GC without MS information. The alignment algorithm is based on the comparison between the retention times of each detected compound in a sample. In this paper, we test the GCALIGNER efficiency on three datasets of the chemical secretions(More)
New molecular studies suggested that the family Melittidae is either a paraphyletic group from which all the other bees are derived, or the sister clade to all other existing bees. Studying the historical biogeography and evolution of each major lineage within this group is a key step to understand the origin and early radiation of bees. Melitta is the(More)
Pheromone-binding proteins (PBPs) are thought to contribute to the specificity of the pheromone detection system through an initial selective binding with pheromone molecules. Here, we report different expression levels of PBP transcripts in the antennae of two populations of the stemborer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), one collected in(More)
Population connectivity is an important source of information for planning conservation strategy. The degree of connectivity implies using alternative conservation prioritizations based on the appropriate spatial scale for management units. In species with low population connectivity, it is important to preserve local populations in order to maintain the(More)
Many species display local variations in pre-mating signals and in mating preferences. This may lead to discrimination against potential foreign mates that may ultimately lead to reproductive isolation. However, the extent to which population differentiation in mating cues affects the species recognition has received little empirical support. Here, we(More)
Insect decline results from numerous interacting factors including climate change. One of the major phenomena related to climate change is the increase of the frequency of extreme events such as heat waves. Since heat waves are suspected to dramatically increase insect mortality, there is an urgent need to assess their potential impact. Here, we determined(More)
Social parasitic Hymenopterans have evolved morphological, chemical, and behavioral adaptations to overcome the sophisticated recognition and defense systems of their social host to invade host nests and exploit their worker force. In bumblebees, social parasitism appeared in at least 3 subgenera independently: in the subgenus Psithyrus consisting entirely(More)