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The pathogenicity of many bacteria depends on the injection of effector proteins via type III secretion into eukaryotic cells in order to manipulate cellular processes. TAL (transcription activator-like) effectors from plant pathogenic Xanthomonas are important virulence factors that act as transcriptional activators in the plant cell nucleus, where they(More)
Sequence-specific nucleases represent valuable tools for precision genome engineering. Traditionally, zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs) and meganucleases have been used to specifically edit complex genomes. Recently, the DNA binding domains of transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas have been harnessed to direct(More)
Barley Rar1 is a convergence point in the signaling of resistance to powdery mildew, triggered by multiple race-specific resistance (R) genes. Rar1 is shown to function upstream of H2O2 accumulation in attacked host cells, which precedes localized host cell death. We isolated Rar1 by map-based cloning. The sequence of the deduced 25.5 kDa protein reveals(More)
Plant disease resistance (R) proteins recognize matching pathogen avirulence proteins. Alleles of the pepper R gene Bs3 mediate recognition of the Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Xcv) type III effector protein AvrBs3 and its deletion derivative AvrBs3Deltarep16. Pepper Bs3 and its allelic variant Bs3-E encode flavin monooxygenases with a previously(More)
Specific control of gene activity is a valuable tool to study and engineer cellular functions. Recent studies uncovered the potential of transcription activator-like effector (TALE) proteins that can be tailored to activate user-defined target genes. It remains however unclear whether and how epigenetic modifications interfere with TALE-mediated(More)
  • T Lahaye, C Menotti, L Santos, M Lewenstein, T Pfau
  • 2009
This article reviews the recent theoretical and experimental advances in the study of ultracold gases made of bosonic particles interacting via the long-range, anisotropic dipole-dipole interaction, in addition to the short-range and isotropic contact interaction usually at work in ultracold gases. The specific properties emerging from the dipolar(More)
Transcription activator-like effector (TALE) DNA binding proteins show tremendous potential as molecular tools for targeted binding to any desired DNA sequence. Their DNA binding domain consists of tandem arranged repeats, and due to this repetitive structure it is challenging to generate designer TALEs (dTALEs) with user-defined specificity. We present a(More)
Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation is an efficient tool for genetic engineering of plants. VirE2 is a single-stranded DNA binding Agrobacterium protein that is transported into the plant cell and presumably protects the T-DNA from degradation. Using a yeast two-hybrid system, we identified Arabidopsis thaliana VIRE2-INTERACTING(More)
Non-invasive fluorophore-based protein interaction assays like fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC, also referred to as "split YFP") have been proven invaluable tools to study protein-protein interactions in living cells. Both methods are now frequently used in the plant sciences and are likely to(More)