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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the approximately 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the(More)
We have developed a hierarchical rule base system for identifying genes in DNA sequences. Atomic sites (such as initiation codons, stop codons, acceptor sites and donor sites) are identified by a number of different methods and evaluated by a set of filters and rules chosen to maximize sensitivity; these are combined into higher-order gene elements (such as(More)
BACKGROUND The low level of response (LR) to alcohol is genetically influenced in both humans and animals, and a low LR is a characteristic of offspring of alcoholics that has been reported to predict alcoholism 10 and 15 years later. The genes that contribute to a low LR have not yet been identified. METHODS A 12-item questionnaire that measures LR, the(More)
AIMS A low level of response (LR) to alcohol is a characteristic of sons of alcoholics and predicts an elevated future alcoholism risk. A 12-question Self-Rating of the Effects (SRE) of alcohol form has been shown to correlate cross-sectionally with a designation of a low LR determined by alcohol challenges. DESIGN This study evaluates the potential(More)
BACKGROUND Between 1978 and 1988, 453 sons (age range, 18-29 years) of alcoholic and control subject were evaluated for their level of reaction (LR) to alcohol. This article presents the results of the 8.2-year follow-up of 450 of these men. The three goals were (1) to attempt to replicate results of the follow-up of the first 223 subjects, (2) to evaluate(More)
OBJECTIVE The level of intensity of response to a drug is likely to influence the future pattern of intake of the substance. This article evaluates a simple Self-Rating of the Effects (SRE) of alcohol form, and reports the relationship between a person's estimate of the amounts of alcohol usually required for four possible effects during three different(More)
Multiple sclerosis is an immune-mediated disorder of the central nervous system leading to progressive decline of motor and sensory functions and permanent disability. The therapy of multiple sclerosis is only partially effective, despite anti-inflammatory, immunosuppresive and immunomodulatory measures. White matter inflammation and loss of myelin, the(More)
PURPOSE To assess patient and tumor characteristics associated with a complete pathologic response (pCR) in both the breast and axillary lymph node specimens and the outcome of patients found to have a pCR after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for locally advanced breast cancer (LABC). PATIENTS AND METHODS Three hundred seventy-two LABC patients received(More)