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Polyclonal activation has been proposed as the reason that autoantibodies are produced during autoimmune disease. This model denies a role for specific antigen selection of B cells and predicts instead a multiclonal population of unmutated or randomly mutated autoantibodies. We have found that the genetic features and clonal composition of spontaneously(More)
Apoptosis is an integral aspect of B lymphocyte development and homeostasis and is regulated by the engagement of antigen costimulatory and cytokine receptors. Although it is well established that interleukin 4 (IL-4) is a potent anti-apoptotic cytokine for B lymphocytes, little is known about the IL-4-induced molecular events regulating cell survival.(More)
Apoptosis of the WEHI 231 immature B cell lymphoma line following membrane interaction with an antibody against the surface IgM chains (anti-IgM) is preceded by dramatic changes in Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)/ Rel binding activities. An early transient increase in NF-kappaB/Rel binding is followed by a significant decrease in intensity below basal(More)
B1 cells differ in many ways from conventional B cells, most prominently in the production of natural immunoglobulin, which is vitally important for protection against pathogens. B1 cells have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune dyscrasias and malignant diseases. It has been impossible to accurately study B1 cells during health and(More)
B1 B cells are the major source of natural antibody that is essential for innate immunity. The B1 repertoire is skewed toward production of phosphatidylcholine (PtC)-binding V(H)11 and V(H)12 immunoglobulin that plays a key role in immune defense against bacterial infection. Programmed death-ligand 2 (PD-L2) is a ligand for the immunosuppressive receptor(More)
Fas, a type I membrane receptor protein, transduces a signal culminating in apoptosis after binding to the Fas ligand. Information regarding the expression of Fas in nonlymphoid tissues, although limited, suggests a role for Fas in epithelial progenitor cell populations. In this paper, we provide several lines of evidence indicating that the progenitor cell(More)
The cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) is generally considered to be responsive to elevation of cAMP through the activity of protein kinase A (PKA). Although it is well known that cAMP-raising agents can strongly influence B cell stimulation, the regulation of CREB has been little studied. Recently, cross-linking of surface Ig (sIg) was shown to(More)
CD40L, a membrane protein of activated T cells, interacts with the B cell receptor CD40. This interaction has been implicated in the rescue of germinal center B cells from apoptosis and in the rescue of WEHI-231 B lymphoma cells from sIg-induced apoptosis. In this report, we have demonstrated that the signal mediated by CD40L acts upon bcl-x, a bcl-2(More)
Regulatory T (T(reg)) cells are indispensable for maintaining peripheral tolerance, whereas T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells induce inflammation and tissue destruction. Using Foxp3-GFP knock-in mice, we report a novel regulatory role for B cell subsets in influencing the differentiation of T(reg) versus Th1/Th17 cells. Peritoneal B1 cells strongly promoted T(More)