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Electron microscopy (EM) is the standard method for imaging cellular structures with nanometer resolution, but existing genetic tags are inactive in most cellular compartments or require light and can be difficult to use. Here we report the development of 'APEX', a genetically encodable EM tag that is active in all cellular compartments and does not require(More)
The crystal structure of Pseudomonas putida cytochrome P450cam with its substrate, camphor, bound has been refined to R = 0.19 at a normal resolution of 1.63 A. While the 1.63 A model confirms our initial analysis based on the 2.6 A model, the higher resolution structure has revealed important new details. These include a more precise assignment of sequence(More)
The crystal structure of horseradish peroxidase isozyme C (HRPC) has been solved to 2.15 A resolution. An important feature unique to the class III peroxidases is a long insertion, 34 residues in HRPC, between helices F and G. This region, which defines part of the substrate access channel, is not present in the core conserved fold typical of peroxidases(More)
Cytochrome P450 14alpha-sterol demethylases (CYP51) are essential enzymes in sterol biosynthesis in eukaryotes. CYP51 removes the 14alpha-methyl group from sterol precursors such as lanosterol, obtusifoliol, dihydrolanosterol, and 24(28)-methylene-24,25-dihydrolanosterol. Inhibitors of CYP51 include triazole antifungal agents fluconazole and itraconazole,(More)
The crystal structure of the complex between the heme- and FMN-binding domains of bacterial cytochrome P450BM-3, a prototype for the complex between eukaryotic microsomal P450s and P450 reductase, has been determined at 2.03 A resolution. The flavodoxin-like flavin domain is positioned at the proximal face of the heme domain with the FMN 4.0 and 18.4 A from(More)
Ritonavir is a HIV protease inhibitor routinely prescribed to HIV patients that also potently inactivates cytochrome P4503A4 (CYP3A4), the major human drug-metabolizing enzyme. By inhibiting CYP3A4, ritonavir increases plasma concentrations of other anti-HIV drugs oxidized by CYP3A4 thereby improving clinical efficacy. Despite the importance and wide use of(More)
BACKGROUND Peroxidases catalyze a wide variety of peroxide-dependent oxidations. Based on sequence alignments, heme peroxidases have been divided into three classes. Crystal structures are available for peroxidases of classes I and II, but until now no structure has been determined for class III, the classical extracellular plant peroxidases. RESULTS The(More)
The crystal structure of Pseudomonas putida cytochrome P-450cam in the ferric, camphor bound form has been determined and partially refined to R = 0.23 at 2.6 A. The single 414 amino acid polypeptide chain (Mr = 45,000) approximates a triangular prism with a maximum dimension of approximately 60 A and a minimum of approximately 30 A. Twelve helical segments(More)
Manganese peroxidase (MnP), an extracellular heme enzyme from the lignin-degrading basidiomycetous fungus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, catalyzes the oxidation of MnII to MnIII. The latter, acting as a diffusible redox mediator, is capable of oxidizing a variety of lignin model compounds. The proposed MnII binding site of MnP consists of a heme propionate,(More)