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OBJECTIVE To design a new class of selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors, and demonstrate that administration in a rabbit model for cerebral palsy (CP) prevents hypoxia-ischemia-induced deaths and reduces the number of newborn kits exhibiting signs of CP. METHODS We used a novel computer-based drug design method called fragment hopping(More)
Electron microscopy (EM) is the standard method for imaging cellular structures with nanometer resolution, but existing genetic tags are inactive in most cellular compartments or require light and can be difficult to use. Here we report the development of 'APEX', a genetically encodable EM tag that is active in all cellular compartments and does not require(More)
Nitric oxide, a key signaling molecule, is produced by a family of enzymes collectively called nitric oxide synthases (NOS). Here, we report the crystal structure of the heme domain of endothelial NOS in tetrahydrobiopterin (H4B)-free and -bound forms at 1.95 A and 1.9 A resolution, respectively. In both structures a zinc ion is tetrahedrally coordinated to(More)
Cytochromes P450 catalyze a variety of monooxygenase reactions that require electron transfer from redox partners. Although the structure of many P450s and a small handful of redox partners are known, there is very little structural information available on redox complexes, thus leaving a gap in our understanding on the control of P450-redox partner(More)
The evolutionary pressures that shaped the specificity and catalytic efficiency of enzymes can only be speculated. While directed evolution experiments show that new functions can be acquired under positive selection with few mutations, the role of negative selection in eliminating undesired activities and achieving high specificity remains unclear. Here we(More)
In transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuronal loss has not been widely observed. The loss of neurons in AD may be due to chronic activation of complement (C') by beta-amyloid (A beta). A beta has been shown to activate C' by binding to a site on the C1q A-chain. The mouse A-chain sequence differs significantly from human, and a peptide based on(More)
Manganese peroxidase (MnP) is an extracellular heme enzyme that catalyzes the peroxide-dependent oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III). The Mn(III) is released from the enzyme in complex with oxalate. One heme propionate and the side chains of Glu35, Glu39, and Asp179 were identified as Mn(II) ligands in the 2.0 A resolution crystal structure. The new 1.45 A(More)
Selective inhibitors of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) are regarded as valuable and powerful agents with therapeutic potential for the treatment of chronic neurodegenerative pathologies and human melanoma. Here, we describe a novel hybrid strategy that combines the pharmacokinetically promising thiophene-2-carboximidamide fragment and structural(More)
X-ray damage to protein crystals is often assessed on the basis of the degradation of diffraction intensity, yet this measure is not sensitive to the rapid changes that occur at photosensitive groups such as the active sites of metalloproteins. Here, X-ray absorption spectroscopy is used to study the X-ray dose-dependent photoreduction of crystals of the(More)
In the postgenomic era, a major challenge remains, elucidating the thermodynamic forces governing receptor-ligand specificity and promiscuity. We report a straightforward approach for mapping side-chain contributions to binding for the multipartner interactions characteristic of the human proteome. Double barrel shotgun scanning dissects binding to two or(More)