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During flapping flight, insect wings must withstand not only fluid-dynamic forces, but also inertial-elastic forces generated by the rapid acceleration and deceleration of their own mass. Estimates of overall aerodynamic and inertial forces vary widely, and the relative importance of these forces in determining passive wing deformations remains unknown. If(More)
Both kinematics and morphology are critical determinants of performance in flapping flight. However, the functional consequences of changes in these traits are not yet well understood. Traditional aerodynamic studies of planform wing shape have suggested that high-aspect-ratio wings generate more force per area and perform more efficiently than(More)
The inverse problem of hovering flight, that is, the range of wing movements appropriate for sustained flight at a fixed position and orientation, was examined by developing a simulation of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. Inverse problems arise when one is seeking the parameters that are required to achieve a specified model outcome. In contrast, forward(More)
Dipteran flight requires rapid acquisition of mechanosensory information provided by modified hindwings known as halteres. Halteres experience torques resulting from Coriolis forces that arise during body rotations. Although biomechanical and behavioral data indicate that halteres detect Coriolis forces, there are scant data regarding neural encoding of(More)
The presence of compliance in the lattice of filaments in muscle raises a number of concerns about how one accounts for force generation in the context of the cross-bridge cycle--binding site motions and coupling between cross-bridges confound more traditional analyses. To explore these issues, we developed a spatially explicit, mechanochemical model of(More)
Control theory arose from a need to control synthetic systems. From regulating steam engines to tuning radios to devices capable of autonomous movement, it provided a formal mathematical basis for understanding the role of feedback in the stability (or change) of dynamical systems. It provides a framework for understanding any system with regulation via(More)
A growing body of evidence indicates that a majority of insects experience some degree of wing deformation during flight. With no musculature distal to the wing base, the instantaneous shape of an insect wing is dictated by the interaction of aerodynamic forces with the inertial and elastic forces that arise from periodic accelerations of the wing. Passive(More)
We tested the hypothesis that solvent viscosity affects translocation of rhodamine phalloidin-labeled F-actin by rabbit skeletal heavy meromyosin (HMM). When viscosity was increased using either glycerol, fructose, sucrose, or dextran (1.5, 6.0, or 15-20 kDa mol mass), there was little or no effect on the fraction of moving filaments, whereas sliding speed(More)
Insect antennae are sensory organs involved in a variety of behaviors, sensing many different stimulus modalities. As mechanosensors, they are crucial for flight control in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta. One of their roles is to mediate compensatory reflexes of the abdomen in response to rotations of the body in the pitch axis. Abdominal motions, in turn, are(More)
A temperature gradient throughout the dominant flight muscle (dorsolongitudinal muscle, DLM(1)) of the hawkmoth Manduca sexta, together with temperature-dependent muscle contractile rates, demonstrates that significant spatial variation in power production is possible within a single muscle. Using in situ work-loop analyses under varying muscle temperatures(More)