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A longitudinal cohort study of sexually active women 18-30 years of age was conducted to identify variables associated with the acquisition of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections. Six hundred seventy HSV-2-seronegative women were followed up at 4-month intervals for 1 year; acquisition of HSV-2 antibodies was detected in 32 of these women. Black(More)
Gardnerella vaginalis is associated with a spectrum of clinical conditions, suggesting high degrees of genetic heterogeneity among stains. Seventeen G. vaginalis isolates were subjected to a battery of comparative genomic analyses to determine their level of relatedness. For each measure, the degree of difference among the G. vaginalis strains was the(More)
To characterize mechanisms of CTL inhibition within an ocular tumor microenvironment, tumor-specific CTLs were transferred into mice with tumors developing within the anterior chamber of the eye or skin. Ocular tumors were resistant to CTL transfer therapy whereas skin tumors were sensitive. CTLs infiltrated ocular tumors at higher CTL/tumor ratios than in(More)
BACKGROUND The etiology of bacterial vaginosis (BV) is poorly understood, but better definition of the risk factors associated with its acquisition should improve our understanding of this complex disease entity. METHODS A longitudinal cohort study of young sexually active women was conducted to identify variables associated with BV acquisition. Seven(More)
BACKGROUND Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), the primary cause of genital herpes, is one of the most prevalent sexually transmitted diseases worldwide. Epidemiologic serosurveys suggest that infections occur more frequently in women than in men. GOAL The goal of the study was to identify unique correlates of HSV-2 infection in women that might(More)
BACKGROUND Genital infections due to herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) are characterized by frequent reactivation and shedding of the virus and by the attendant risk of transmission to sexual partners. We investigated the effects of vaginal coinfections and hormonal contraceptive use on genital tract shedding of HSV-2 in women. METHODS A total of 330(More)
BACKGROUND Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a perturbation of vaginal flora characterized by reduced levels of lactobacilli and concomitant overgrowth of anaerobic bacterial species. BV is highly prevalent and associated with multiple adverse outcomes, including enhanced human immunodeficiency virus transmission. Because recent reports reveal that herpes simplex(More)
While Chlamydia trachomatis infections are frequently asymptomatic, mechanisms that regulate host response to this intracellular Gram-negative bacterium remain undefined. This investigation thus used peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial tissue from women with or without Chlamydia genital tract infection to better define this response. Initial(More)
OBJECTIVE Roles for Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae infections in pelvic inflammatory disease pathogenesis are well delineated; however, the etiologic contributions of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and Trichomonas vaginalis have been underexplored. GOAL The goal of this study was to investigate the association between acute and(More)
STUDY QUESTION Does medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) impair human dendritic cell (DC) activation and function? SUMMARY ANSWER In vitro MPA treatment suppressed expression of CD40 and CD80 by human primary DCs responding to Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) agonist stimulation (i.e. DC activation). Moreover, this MPA-mediated decrease in CD40 expression(More)