Thomas Kofod

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OBJECTIVE Nonexposed osteonecrosis of the jaws (NE-ONJ) does not fit into the current definition of osteonecrosis, which requires exposed bone. A modification of the classification of bisphosphonate-induced osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) is proposed. This study aimed to test proposed criteria for NE-ONJ and compare NE-ONJ with exposed ONJ (E-ONJ) in a(More)
The clinical outcome of closed vs open reduction and rigid fixation was compared based on a systematic review of the literature. Ten non-randomized retrospective studies were found. In six of these ten studies, the complication rate was significantly increased when open reduction and plating was performed. In the remaining studies, a slightly elevated (but(More)
An approach was developed to evaluate the load transfer mechanism in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) area before, during and after mandibular ramus elongation by distraction osteogenesis (DO). In a concerted approach using computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and finite element analysis, three-dimensional numerical models based on a(More)
The possible relation between treatment delay and healing complications in mandibular fracture treatment (excluding condylar fractures) was reviewed systematically. Twenty-two studies were identified. No randomized studies focused on the effect of immediate or delayed treatment. The main focus of most studies was surgical repositioning and internal skeletal(More)
Successful correction of facial asymmetry by mandibular distraction osteogenesis relies on mastering vector control. Lack of necessary vector control continues to compromise the treatment modality. The purpose of this study was to describe a new simplified method for vector transfer and to evaluate this method according to the outcome and the efficacy of(More)
Distraction osteogenesis has recently become a mainstay for treatment of mandibular hypoplasia. Thorough knowledge about changes in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the surrounding parts of the mandible and the skull after mandibular distraction is still lacking. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the stress distribution in the(More)
Distraction osteogenesis has been accepted as an alternative treatment modality for hypoplastic mandibles. Knowledge about the changes occurring in the temporomandibular joint region during mandibular distraction osteogenesis is, however, limited and controversial. Stress distribution in the temporomandibular joint region during unilateral vertical(More)
When teeth are replanted after being avulsed, the repair process sometimes results in ankylosis. In a growing child, the ankylosed tooth fails to move along with the remaining alveolar process during vertical growth, resulting in a tooth that gradually appears more and more impacted and requires several reconstructive procedures to correct. Ankylosed teeth(More)
Mandibular distraction osteogenesis fails in correcting the skeletal deformities if the vector of distraction is incorrect. Lack of vector control is caused mainly by two factors: first, deficient vector planning and transfer, and, second, resistance of the masticatory muscles and the remaining soft tissue envelope toward elongation. To enhance predictable(More)
Mandibular distraction osteogenesis is, despite impressive results, compromised as a treatment modality by difficulties with vector control independent of whether intra- or extraoral devices are used. Resistance of the masticatory muscles and the remaining soft tissue envelope toward elongation and incorrect planning and transfer of the vector cause lack of(More)