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In the nineteenth century, marijuana was prescribed by physicians for maladies ranging from eating disorders to rabies. However, as newer, more effective drugs were discovered and as the potential for abuse of marijuana was recognized, its use as a therapeutic became restricted, and only recently has its therapeutic potential been re-evaluated. Recent(More)
Studies on the effects of marijuana smoking have evolved into the discovery and description of the endocannabinoid system. To date, this system is composed of two receptors, CB1 and CB2, and endogenous ligands including anandamide, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, and others. CB1 receptors and ligands are found in the brain as well as immune and other peripheral(More)
The effect of interleukin-1 beta (IL 1 beta) on spatial learning was examined. In one experiment, C57BL/6 mice were given daily injections (100 ng/mouse) of recombinant murine IL1 beta prior to training on the Morris water maze. In another experiment, mice were infected with a sublethal dose of a gram-negative bacterium (Legionella pneumophila; Lp). Mice(More)
Activated microglial cells have been implicated in a number of neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and HIV dementia. It is well known that inflammatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO), cytokines, and chemokines play an important role in microglial cell-associated neuron cell damage. Our previous(More)
Resistance to infection with Legionella pneumophila is primarily dependent upon cell-mediated immunity rather than humoral immunity. Recent evidence suggests that activation of cell-mediated immunity depends on Th1 cells and activation of humoral immunity depends on Th2 cells. In this report, delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the major psychoactive(More)
The use of recreational drugs of abuse has generated serious health concerns. There is a long-recognized relationship between addictive drugs and increased levels of infections. Studies of the mechanisms of actions of these drugs became more urgent with the advent of AIDS and its correlation with abused substances. The nature and mechanisms of(More)
OBJECTIVES Considerable morbidity persists among survivors of breast cancer (BC) including high levels of psychological stress, anxiety, depression, fear of recurrence, and physical symptoms including pain, fatigue, and sleep disturbances, and impaired quality of life. Effective interventions are needed during this difficult transitional period. METHODS(More)
Many advances have been made in the last few years concerning our understanding of the receptors and ligands composing the cannabinoid system. Likewise, the science surrounding cytokine biology has advanced enabling us to measure these proteins more precisely as well as understand and interpret the meaning of changes in their levels. Scientists wishing to(More)
Although nicotine is thought to be one of the major immunomodulatory components of cigarette smoking, how nicotine alters the host defense of the lung and, in particular, immune responses of alveolar macrophages, which are critical effector cells in the lung defense to infection, is poorly understood. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are the(More)
Cannabinoid CB(2) receptor is reported to be expressed in varying amounts in different human immune subpopulations. To examine the expression pattern of CB(2) in the mouse, immune cell subpopulations were purified and studied by semiquantitative Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR). CB(2) mRNA was most abundant in splenic B cells,(More)