Thomas Kiefhaber

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The enzyme peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) was recently discovered in mammalian tissues and purified from porcine kidney. It catalyses the slow cis-trans isomerization of proline peptide (Xaa-Pro) bonds in oligopeptides and accelerates slow, rate-limiting steps in the folding of several proteins. Here, we report the N-terminal sequence of(More)
Protein aggregation is frequently observed as a major side-reaction of protein folding. We present quantitative models explaining the formation of aggregates during protein folding in vitro and in vivo on the basis of a kinetic competition between correct folding and aggregation reactions. Both models are in good agreement with experimental data. The model(More)
Folding of lysozyme from hen egg white was investigated by using interrupted refolding experiments. This method makes use of a high energy barrier between the native state and transient folding intermediates, and, in contrast to conventional optical techniques, it enables one to specifically monitor the amount of native molecules during protein folding. The(More)
phi(f)-value analysis is one of the most common methods to characterize the structure of protein folding transition states. It compares the effects of mutations on the folding kinetics with the respective effects on equilibrium stability. The interpretation of the results usually focuses on a few unusual phi(f)-values, which are either particularly high or(More)
Many small proteins fold fast and without detectable intermediates. This is frequently taken as evidence against the importance of partially folded states, which often transiently accumulate during folding of larger proteins. To get insight into the properties of free energy barriers in protein folding we analyzed experimental data from 23 proteins that(More)
The channel-forming protein OmpF porin from Escherichia coli spans the bacterial outer membrane. Each of the three monomers comprises a hollow, 16-stranded beta-barrel. These are associated to homotrimers which are unusually stable, due mostly to hydrophobic interactions between the beta-barrels. In addition, a loop, L2 connects one subunit to its neighbor(More)
The foldon domain constitutes the C-terminal 30 amino acid residues of the trimeric protein fibritin from bacteriophage T4. Its function is to promote folding and trimerization of fibritin. We investigated structure, stability and folding mechanism of the isolated foldon domain. The domain folds into the same trimeric beta-propeller structure as in fibritin(More)
The slow refolding of ribonuclease T1 was investigated by different probes. Structural intermediates with secondary structure are formed early during refolding, as indicated by the rapid regain of a native-like circular dichroism spectrum in the amide region. This extensive structure formation is much faster than the slow steps of refolding, which are(More)
The molecular chaperone GroE facilitates correct protein folding in vivo and in vitro. The mode of action of GroE was investigated by using refolding of citrate synthase as a model system. In vitro denaturation of this dimeric protein is almost irreversible, since the refolding polypeptide chains aggregate rapidly, as shown directly by a strong,(More)
The rate of formation of intramolecular interactions in unfolded proteins determines how fast conformational space can be explored during folding. Characterization of the dynamics of unfolded proteins is therefore essential for the understanding of the earliest steps in protein folding. We used triplet-triplet energy transfer to measure formation of(More)