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The orbitofrontal cortex has been cytoarchitectonically and connectionally subdivided into a medial and a lateral part which are assumed to subserve distinct functions in emotional processing. However the exact spatiotemporal mechanisms of negative and positive emotional processing in medial and lateral orbitofrontal cortex remain unclear. We therefore(More)
Electrodynamic speakers compatible with (functional) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are described. The speakers magnets are removed, their function is replaced by the scanner's magnetic field, resulting in an uncommon but efficient operation. The method can be used with headphones as well as woofers. Functional MRI is not associated with any known(More)
Fast, low-angle shoot functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), based on the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect, was combined with optical recording of intrinsic signals (ORIS) and 2-deoxyglucose labeling in gerbil barrel cortex. We observed over the activated barrel a positive BOLD signal and increased levels of deoxyhemoglobin and total(More)
Various prefrontal cortical regions have been shown to be activated during emotional stimulation, whereas neurochemical mechanisms underlying emotional processing in the prefrontal cortex remain unclear. We therefore investigated the influence of the GABA-A potentiator lorazepam on prefrontal cortical emotional-motor spatio-temporal activation pattern in a(More)
Catatonia is a psychomotor syndrome characterized by concurrent emotional, behavioral, and motor anomalies. Pathophysiological mechanisms of psychomotor disturbances may be related to abnormal emotional-motor processing in prefrontal cortical networks. We therefore investigated prefrontal cortical activation and connectivity patterns during emotional-motor(More)
Working memory (WM) tasks involve several interrelated processes during which past information must be transiently maintained, recalled, and compared with test items according to previously instructed rules. It is not clear whether the rule-specific comparisons of perceptual with memorized items are only performed in previously identified frontal and(More)
The molecular motor dynein and its associated regulatory subunit dynactin have been implicated in several neurodegenerative conditions of the basal ganglia, such as Huntington's disease (HD) and Perry syndrome, an atypical Parkinson-like disease. This pathogenic role has been largely postulated from the existence of mutations in the dynactin subunit(More)
In recent years, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a preferred tool for the diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in humans. A widely used animal model for human ALS is the G93A-superoxide dismutase 1 (G93A-SOD1) transgenic mouse model. However, the mechanisms for the selective degeneration of motor neurons in the brainstem and(More)
To follow up the development of an individual brain over time and to measure its growth we have analysed the brains of individual cats from postnatal day 12 to adulthood using magnetic resonance imaging. From the anatomical images, four parameters were calculated: anteroposterior extent of the telencephalon, brain volume, neocortical surface area and(More)
Based on a stimulated-echo technique, a method to construct an apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map of hyperpolarized (3)He in a long-range diffusion scale is presented with a phase-cycle alternative to remove all unwanted echoes. The approach was successfully applied to determine in vivo diffusion constants in rat lungs. The ADC values in healthy rats(More)