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We introduce Olympus, a freely available framework for research in conversational interfaces. Olympus' open, transparent, flexible, modular and scalable nature facilitates the development of large-scale, real-world systems, and enables research leading to technological and scientific advances in conversational spoken language interfaces. In this paper, we(More)
The <i>personal universal controller</i> (PUC) is an approach for improving the interfaces to complex appliances by introducing an intermediary graphical or speech interface. A PUC engages in two-way communication with everyday appliances, first downloading a specification of the appliance's functions, and then automatically creating an interface for(More)
In protein and RNA macromolecules, only a limited number of different side-chain chemical groups are available to function as catalysts. The myriad of enzyme-catalyzed reactions results from the ability of most of these groups to function either as nucleophilic, electrophilic, or general acid-base catalysts, and the key to their adapted chemical function(More)
A novel thermodynamically-balanced inside-out (TBIO) method of primer design was developed and compared with a thermodynamically-balanced conventional (TBC) method of primer design for PCR-based gene synthesis of codon-optimized gene sequences for the human protein kinase B-2 (PKB2; 1494 bp), p70 ribosomal S6 subunit protein kinase-1 (S6K1; 1622 bp) and(More)
The amino-terminal proline of 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) functions as the general base catalyst in the enzyme-catalyzed isomerization of beta,gamma-unsaturated enones to their alpha,beta-isomers because of its unusually low pK(a) of 6.4 +/- 0.2, which is 3 units lower than that of the model compound, proline amide. Recent studies show that this(More)
In Cognitive Tutors, student skill is represented by estimates of student knowledge on various knowledge components. The estimate for each knowledge component is based on a four-parameter model developed by Corbett and Anderson [Nb]. In this paper, we investigate the nature of the parameter space defined by these four parameters by modeling data from over(More)
Program. The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the author and should not be interpreted as representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of any sponsoring institution, the U.S. government or any other entity. Abstract In the developing world, critical information, such as in the field of healthcare, can often(More)
The unusually low pK(a) value of the general base catalyst Pro-1 (pK(a) = 6.4) in 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) has been ascribed to both a low dielectric constant at the active site and the proximity of the cationic residues Arg-11 and Arg-39 [Stivers, J. T., Abeygunawardana, C., Mildvan, A. S., Hajipour, G., and Whitman, C. P. (1996) Biochemistry(More)
In addition to its catalytic domain, phosphoinsositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1) contains a C-terminal pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, which binds the membrane-bound phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate [PI(3,4,5)P3] second messenger. Here, we report in vitro kinetic, phosphopeptide mapping, and oligomerization studies that address the role of(More)
We have compared hydrogen bond lengths on enzymes derived with high precision (< or = +/- 0.05 A) from both the proton chemical shifts (delta) and the fractionation factors (phi) of the proton involved with those obtained from protein X-ray crystallography. Hydrogen bond distances derived from proton chemical shifts were obtained from a correlation of 59(More)