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Many experimental results are reported on all types of Evolutionary Algorithms but only few results have been proved. A step towards a theory on Evolutionary Algorithms , in particular, the so-called (1 + 1) Evolutionary Algorithm, is performed. Linear functions are proved to be optimized in expected time O(n ln n) but only mutation rates of size Θ(1/n) can(More)
The most simple evolutionary algorithm, the so-called (1+1)EA accepts a child if its fitness is at least as large (in the case of maximization) as the fitness of its parent. The variant (1 + 1) * EA only accepts a child if its fitness is strictly larger than the fitness of its parent. Here two functions related to the class of long path functions are(More)
The place and date of the domestication of the horse has long been a matter for debate among archaeologists. To determine whether horses were domesticated from one or several ancestral horse populations, we sequenced the mitochondrial D-loop for 318 horses from 25 oriental and European breeds, including American mustangs. Adding these sequences to(More)
Randomized search heuristics like local search, tabu search, simulated annealing or all kinds of evolutionary algorithms have many applications. However, for most problems the best worst-case expected run times are achieved by more problem-specific algorithms. This raises the question about the limits of general randomized search heuristics. Here a(More)
Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) generally come with a large number of parameters that have to be set before the algorithm can be used. Finding appropriate settings is a difficult task. The influence of these parameters on the efficiency of the search performed by an evolutionary algorithm can be very high. But there is still a lack of theoretically justified(More)
BACKGROUND The vitamin D system has been implicated in type 1 diabetes by epidemiological and immune intervention studies as well as by polymorphisms of the vitamin D binding protein (DBP) and CYP27B1 genes. CYP2R1, a cytochrome P450 enzyme, catalyzes the formation of vitamin D3 to 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), the main circulating vitamin D metabolite.(More)
One of the most controversial yet enduring hypotheses about what genetic algorithms (GAs) are good for concerns the idea that GAs process building-blocks. More specifically, it has been suggested that crossover in GAs can assemble short low-order schemata of above average fitness (building blocks) to create higher-order higher-fitness schemata. However,(More)