Thomas J. Williams

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A Pd-mediated direct C-H bond functionalisation of tryptophan has been developed, both as a single amino acid residue and within peptides. Important mechanistic insight into this process has been gained by characterising a Pd catalytically competent nanoparticle phase which evolves during the early stages of reaction.
BACKGROUND Several portable oxygen concentrators (POCs) have become available in the United States. Technical trade-offs are made in designing POCs, so their performance is expected to differ. METHODS We tested 4 POC models (Invacare XPO(2), Respironics EverGo, AirSep FreeStyle, and Inogen One) for oxygen delivery as a function of respiratory rate. We(More)
A mild acylation of N-alkylindoles is reported using sodium chlorodifluoroacetate (SCDA) to synthesize useful chlorodifluoroketones. Friedel-Crafts reactivity of carboxylate salts is unusual and is not observed in similar electron-deficient acetate salts such as sodium trifluoroacetate. Mechanistic experiments indicate that the characteristic ability of(More)
has been approved by the Examining Committee for the thesis requirement for the Master of Arts degree in Geography at the May 2014 graduation. ii " Far away in Montana, hidden from view by clustering mountain-peaks, lies an unmapped northwestern corner-the Crown of the Continent. The water from the crusted snowdrift which caps the peak of a lofty mountain(More)
Pd(0)2(dba)3 (dba = E,E-dibenzylidene acetone) is the most widely used Pd(0) source in Pd-mediated transformations. Pd(0)2(dba-Z)3 (Z = dba aryl substituents) complexes exhibit remarkable and differential catalytic performance in an eclectic array of cross-coupling reactions. The precise structure of these types of complexes has been confounding, since(More)
Pd-mediated C-H bond functionalisation protocols have been designed and developed on tryptophan derivatives and tryptophan-containing peptides. The examination of different arylation reactions (three sets of different conditions A-C), all of which are notable for their low temperatures (≤40 °C), allowed identification of unified and complementary synthetic(More)
An electrochemical approach for the preparation of copper(I) N-heterocyclic carbene complexes has been developed to include a diverse range of ligand precursors. Importantly, the method is effective for a ligand precursor that contains several acidic protons and for which traditional methods of carbene formation are not suitable.
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