Thomas J. Walters

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BACKGROUND Up to 9% of casualties killed in action during the Vietnam War died from exsanguination from extremity injuries. Retrospective reviews of prehospital tourniquet use in World War II and by the Israeli Defense Forces revealed improvements in extremity hemorrhage control and very few adverse limb outcomes when tourniquet times are less than 6 hours.(More)
We examined whether fatigue during exertional heat stress occurred at a critical internal temperature independent of the initial temperature at the start of exercise. Microwaves (2.1 GHz; 100 mW/cm(2)) were used to rapidly (3-8 min) heat rats before treadmill exercise to exhaustion. In a repeated-measures design, food-restricted male Sprague-Dawley rats (n(More)
The loss of a portion of skeletal muscle poses a unique challenge for the normal regeneration of muscle tissue. A transection injury with tissue loss will not heal due to the gap between muscle segments. A damage model was developed by removing a portion of the lateral gastrocnemius (GAS) of Sprague-Dawley rats. Maximal isometric, tetanic tension (P(o)) was(More)
BACKGROUND Previously we showed that tourniquets were lifesaving devices in the current war. Few studies, however, describe their actual morbidity in combat casualties. The purpose of this study was to measure tourniquet use and complications. METHODS A prospective survey of casualties who required tourniquets was performed at a combat support hospital in(More)
Tissue engineering strategies that primarily use biological extracellular matrices (ECMs) with or without the inclusion of a stem or progenitor cell source are under development for the treatment of trauma resulting in the loss of a large volume of skeletal muscle (i.e., volumetric muscle loss; VML). The explicit goal is to restore functional capacity to(More)
We have previously documented the regional distribution of 70-kDa heat shock protein (HSP70) in brains of rats made hyperthermic by brief exposure to high-powered microwaves (HPM; 2.06 GHz). We now compare HSP70 expression induced by HPM exposure to that induced by exertional and/or environmental heat stress. Rats were chronically implanted with a(More)
We measured thresholds for microwave-evoked skin sensations of warmth at frequencies of 2.45, 7.5, 10, 35, and 94 GHz. In the same subjects, thresholds of warmth evoked by infrared radiation (IR) were also measured for comparison. Detection thresholds were measured on the skin in the middle of the back in 15 adult male human subjects at all microwave (MW)(More)
Extracellular matrix (ECM) derived scaffolds continue to be investigated for the treatment of volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries. Clinically, ECM scaffolds have been used for lower extremity VML repair; in particular, MatriStem™, a porcine urinary bladder matrix (UBM), has shown improved functional outcomes and vascularization, but limited myogenesis.(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine if emergency tourniquet use saved lives. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA Tourniquets have been proposed as lifesaving devices in the current war and are now issued to all soldiers. Few studies, however, describe their actual use in combat casualties. METHODS A prospective survey of injured who required(More)
BACKGROUND In a previous study conducted at a combat support hospital in Iraq, we reported the major lifesaving benefits of emergency tourniquets to stop bleeding in major limb trauma. Morbidity associated with tourniquet use was minor. STUDY OBJECTIVES The objective of this study is to further analyze emergency tourniquet use in combat casualty care. (More)