Thomas J. Trout

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Soil fumigation is an important management practice for controlling soil pests and enabling successful replanting of orchards. Reducing emissions is required to minimize the possible worker and bystander risk and the contribution of fumigants to the atmosphere as volatile organic compounds that lead to the formation of ground-level ozone. A field trial was(More)
Reducing emissions is essential for minimizing the impact of soil fumigation on the environment. Water application to the soil surface (or water seal) has been demonstrated to reduce 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) emissions in soil column tests. This study determined the effectiveness of water application to reduce emissions of 1,3-D and chloropicrin (CP) in(More)
Reducing fumigant emissions is required for minimizing bystander risk and environmental impact. Effective and economic field management methods including commonly used surface sealing technique and soil amendments are needed for achieving emission reductions. This research determined the effectiveness of ammonium thiosulfate (ATS) and composted manure(More)
Minimizing fumigant emissions is required for meeting air-quality standards. Application of organic materials to surface soil has been effective in reducing fumigant emissions during laboratory tests, but the potential to reduce emissions in the field has not been adequately evaluated. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of incorporated(More)
Low permeability tarps can effectively minimize fumigant emissions while improving fumigation efficacy by retaining fumigants under the tarp. However, when planting holes are cut through the tarps, high-concentration fumigants may be released and result in environmental and worker safety hazards. In a 11-day column study, we explored the effect of drip(More)
High emissions from soil fumigants increase the risk of detrimental impact on workers, bystanders, and the environment, and jeopardize future availability of fumigants. Efficient and cost-effective approaches to minimize emissions are needed. This study evaluated the potential of surface water application (or water seal) to reduce 1,3-dichloropropene(More)
Soil physical conditions can affect diffusion, environmental fate, and efficacy of fumigants in soil disinfestation treatments. Water seals (applying water using sprinklers to soil following fumigation) can effectively reduce fumigant emissions from sandy loam soils. Soil column studies compared the effectiveness of water seals in reducing(More)
Reflective bands of Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper satellite imagery were used to facilitate the estimation of basal crop evapotranspiration (ETcb), or potential crop water use, in San Joaquin Valley fields during 2008. A ground-based digital camera measured green fractional cover (Fc) of 49 commercial fields planted to 18 different crop types (row crops,(More)
Soil organic matter is an important factor affecting the fate of soil fumigants; therefore, the addition of organic amendments to surface soils could reduce fumigant emissions by accelerating fumigant degradation. Experiments were conducted to determine the degradation of fumigants [a mixture of cis- and trans-1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) and chloropicrin(More)
In semi-arid environments, the use of irrigation is necessary for sunflower production to reach its maximum potential. The aim of this study was to quantify the consumptive water use and crop coefficients of irrigated sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) without soil water limitations during two growing seasons. The experimental work was conducted in the(More)