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Although extensive evidence exists for the reinforcing properties of drugs of abuse such as cocaine, relatively less research has addressed the functional neuroanatomical correlates of the cognitive sequelae of these drugs. We present a functional magnetic resonance imaging study of a GO-NOGO task in which successful performance required prepotent behaviors(More)
Sustained attention deficits occur in several neuropsychiatric disorders. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are still incompletely understood. To that end, functional MRI was used to investigate the neural substrates of sustained attention (vigilance) using the rapid visual information processing (RVIP) task in 25 healthy volunteers. In(More)
Understanding nicotine's neurobiological and cognitive mechanisms may help explain both its addictive properties and potential therapeutic applications. As such, functional MRI was used to determine the neural substrates of nicotine's effects on a sustained attention (rapid visual information-processing) task. Performance was associated with activation in a(More)
Preclinical models have consistently demonstrated the importance of the mesocorticolimbic (MCL) brain reward system in drug dependence, with critical molecular and cellular neuroadaptations identified within these structures following chronic cocaine administration. Cocaine dependent individuals manifest alterations in reward functioning that may relate to(More)
Modern theories of drug dependence hold the hedonic effects of drug-taking central to understanding the motivation for compulsive drug use. Previous neuroimaging studies have begun to identify brain regions associated with acute drug effects after passive delivery. In this study, a more naturalistic model of cocaine self-administration (SA) was employed in(More)
BACKGROUND The reinforcing effects of nicotine are mediated by brain regions that also support temporal difference error (TDE) processing; yet, the impact of nicotine on TDE is undetermined. METHODS Dependent smokers (n = 21) and matched control subjects (n = 21) were trained to associate a juice reward with a visual cue in a classical conditioning(More)
Sustained attention abnormality in schizophrenia is usually refractory to available treatment. Nicotine can transiently improve sustained attention in schizophrenia patients, although its neural mechanisms are unknown. Understanding the neural basis of this effect may lead to new treatment strategies for this cognitive deficit. Twenty schizophrenia patients(More)
BACKGROUND Dopaminergic activity plays a role in mediating the rewarding aspects of abused drugs, including nicotine. Nicotine modulates the reinforcing properties of other motivational stimuli, yet the mechanisms of this interaction are poorly understood. This study aimed to ascertain the impact of nicotine exposure on neuronal activity associated with(More)
Allocation of attentional resources to portions of the available sensory input can be regulated by bottom-up processes, i.e., spontaneous orientation towards an oncoming stimulus (stimulus-driven attention), and by top-down processes, i.e., intentionally and driven by knowledge, expectation and goals. The present study aimed at advancing the understanding(More)
Group independent component analysis (gICA) was performed on resting-state data from 14 healthy subjects scanned on 5 fMRI scan sessions across 16 days. The data were reduced and aggregated in 3 steps using Principal Components Analysis (PCA, within scan, within session and across session) and subjected to gICA procedures. The amount of reduction was(More)