Thomas J. Phillips

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The prevention of deforestation and promotion of afforestation have often been cited as strategies to slow global warming. Deforestation releases CO(2) to the atmosphere, which exerts a warming influence on Earth's climate. However, biophysical effects of deforestation, which include changes in land surface albedo, evapotranspiration, and cloud cover also(More)
We use nine different observational datasets to estimate California-average temperature trends during the periods 1950–1999 and 1915–2000. Observed results are compared to trends from a suite of climate model simulations of natural internal climate variability. On the longer (86-year) timescale, increases in annual-mean surface temperature in all(More)
We evaluated the impacts of climate change on the productivity and health of a forest in the mixed-conifer region in California. We adapted an industry-standard planning tool to forecast 30-years of growth for forest stands under a changing climate. Four projections of future climate (two global climate models and two emission forecasts) were examined for(More)
The objective of this study is to cross-validate 34 Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) historical simulations of precipitation against the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) data, quantifying model pattern discrepancies, and biases for both entire distributions and their upper tails. The results of the volumetric hit index(More)
Cloud and aerosol effects on radiation in two contrasting cloud types, a deep mesoscale convective system (MCS) and warm stratocumulus clouds, are simulated and compared. At the top of the atmosphere, 45–81% of shortwave cloud forcing (SCF) is offset by longwave cloud forcing (LCF) in the MCS, whereas warm stratiform clouds show the offset of less than(More)
This study provides insight into how CMIP5 climate models perform in simulating summer and winter precipitation at different geographical locations and climate conditions. Precipitation biases in the CMIP5 historical (1901 to 2005) simulations relative to the Climatic Research Unit (CRU) observations are evaluated over 8 regions exhibiting distinct seasonal(More)
Assessing the uncertainties and understanding the deficiencies of climate models are fundamental to developing adaptation strategies. The objective of this study is to understand how well Coupled Model Intercomparison-Phase 5 (CMIP5) climate model simulations replicate ground-based observations of continental drought areas and their trends. The CMIP5(More)
During the period 1979–1992, on average nearly 400 people each year were killed in the United States by excessive heat (NOAA 1995; Kilbourne 1997). In fact, in this period over the United States, excessive heat accounted for more reported deaths annually than hurricanes, floods, tornadoes, and lightning combined (NOAA 1995). Furthermore, agriculture(More)
This study established that the mutant creep and ageotropum phenotypes are expressed differently during development in pea (Pisum sativum L.). Etiolated ageotropum stems grew at a wide range of angles, whereas etiolated creep stems emerged vertically from the compost. However, when etiolated creep stems were subjected to additional gravitropic demands, such(More)