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Radiation inactivation was used in situ to determine the functional unit sizes of the neurotoxin receptors of the voltage-dependent sodium channel from rat brain. Frozen or lyophilized synaptosomes were irradiated with high energy electrons generated by a linear accelerator and assayed for [3H]saxitoxin, 125I-Leiurus quinquestriatus quinquestriatus(More)
Neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine (ACh)-activated currents in rat parasympathetic ganglion cells were examined using whole-cell and single-channel patch clamp recording techniques. The whole-cell current-voltage (I-V) relationship exhibited strong inward rectification and a reversal (zero current) potential of -3.9 mV in nearly symmetrical Na+ solutions(More)
Neurons have the potential to form thousands of distinct neuronal nicotinic receptors from the eight alpha and three beta subunits that currently are known. In an effort to determine how much of this potential complexity is realized among individual neurons, we examined the nicotinic pharmacological and biophysical properties and receptor subunit mRNA(More)
Acetylcholine-evoked currents mediated by activation of nicotinic receptors in rat parasympathetic neurons were examined using whole-cell voltage clamp. The relative permeability of the neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor channel to monovalent and divalent inorganic and organic cations was determined from reversal potential measurements. The(More)
The alpha7-selective agonists 3-(2, 4-dimethoxybenzylidene)-anabaseine (GTS-21), also known as DMXB, and 3-(4-hydroxy,2-methoxybenzylidene)anabaseine (4OH-GTS-21) produce a variety of behavioral and cytoprotective effects that may be related to the activation of either large transient currents at high concentrations or small sustained currents at lower(More)
The influence of pyrethroid insecticides is thought to be abrogated at mammalian physiological temperatures. Yet there are many reports of transient pain and paresthesia following accidental exposures. Using whole cell patch clamp techniques, we examined the interaction of the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin on skin, muscle and putative vascular(More)
Chronic pain is a component of the multisymptom disease known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). There is evidence that pain symptoms could have been a consequence of prolonged and/or excessive exposure to anticholinesterases and other GW chemicals. We previously reported that rats exposed, for 8 weeks, to a mixture of anticholinesterases (pyridostigmine bromide,(More)
Exposure to DEET (N,N-diethyl-meta-toluamide) may have influenced the pattern of symptoms observed in soldiers with GWI (Gulf War Illness; Haley and Kurt, 1997). We examined how the addition of DEET (400mg/kg; 50% topical) to an exposure protocol of permethrin (2.6mg/kg; topical), chlorpyrifos (CP; 120mg/kg), and pyridostigmine bromide (PB;13mg/kg) altered(More)
Following their return from deployment, Gulf War (GW) veterans reported widespread joint and muscle pain at rates that far exceeded those of soldiers returning from other conflicts. It is widely believed that exposure to insecticides, repellants and nerve gas prophylactics contributed to the symptoms of Gulf War Illness (GWI), but an animal model of GW pain(More)