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The apparent prevalence of endoparasite infections across different age groups was calculated from 6555 dogs and 1566 cats that had a fecal examination performed upon presentation to the Veterinary Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania between 1997 and 2007. Based on notations from the medical history indicating prior parasite infections, estimates of(More)
Strongyloidiasis is the most common endemic helminthiasis in several of the world's industrialized nations, yet relatively little is known about its basic biology and immunobiology because a practical rodent model for the investigation of this clinically important parasitism is lacking. This study reports such a model for use in the investigation of(More)
Critical investigations into the cellular and molecular biology of parasitic nematodes have been hindered by a lack of modern molecular genetic techniques for these organisms. One such technique is transgenesis. To our knowledge, the findings reported here demonstrate the first heritable DNA transformation and transgene expression in the intestinal parasite(More)
Transgenesis is a valuable methodology for studying gene expression patterns and gene function. It has recently become available for research on some parasitic nematodes, including Strongyloides stercoralis. Previously, we described a vector construct, comprising the promoter and 3' UTR of the S. stercoralis gene Ss era-1 that gives expression of GFP in(More)
Protective immunity to Strongyloides stercoralis infective larvae in mice has been shown to be dependent on IL-5 based on mAb depletion studies. The goal of this study was to determine the functional role of IL-5 during the innate and adaptive immune response to larval S. stercoralis in mice. In these studies, three strains of mice were used: wild-type(More)
Challenge worm survival was significantly reduced when BALB/cByJ mice were vaccinated against Strongyloides stercoralis infective third stage larvae (L3) regardless of whether the challenge infections consisted of systemically migrating L3 or L3 implanted in diffusion chambers. The only cell type that increased in number in diffusion chambers in immunized(More)
A murine model system was developed to study the induction and mechanism of protective immunity to L3 of Strongyloides stercoralis. L3 were implanted in BALB/cByJ mice in diffusion chambers constructed with 0.1- or 2.0-microns-pore-size membranes. Parasites survived equally well regardless or membrane type for 7 days, after which larval survival decreased(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the ability of a single injection of a sustained-release formulation of moxidectin (moxidectin SR) to protect dogs against heartworm infection for 180 days after inoculation with infective third-stage larvae (L3) of Dirofilaria immitis. ANIMALS 32 adult mixed-breed dogs. PROCEDURE Dogs were allocated to 4 groups on the basis of weight(More)
The goal of the present study was to determine if immune-mediated killing of S. stercoralis L3 in mice could be modulated by shifting from a Th-2 to a Th-1 type immune response. L3 killing in immunized mice was ablated in CD4+ T cell-depleted animals, but not in CD8+ T cell-depleted or beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice. Treatment of immunized mice with(More)
Macrocyclic lactones (MLs) have many anti-parasitic applications in small companion animal medicine. They were first developed as chemoprophylactics against heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection to be applied monthly for retroactive killing of third- and fourth-stage larvae. ML-containing products formulated for oral (ivermectin, milbemycin oxime),(More)