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Genetic transformation is a potential tool for analyzing gene function and thereby identifying new drug and vaccine targets in parasitic nematodes, which adversely affect more than one billion people. We have previously developed a robust system for transgenesis in Strongyloides spp. using gonadal microinjection for gene transfer. In this system, transgenes(More)
The infectious form of many parasitic nematodes, which afflict over one billion people globally, is a developmentally arrested third-stage larva (L3i). The parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis differs from other nematode species that infect humans, in that its life cycle includes both parasitic and free-living forms, which can be leveraged to(More)
Infective third-stage larvae (L3i) of the human parasite Strongyloides stercoralis share many morphological, developmental, and behavioral attributes with Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larvae. The 'dauer hypothesis' predicts that the same molecular genetic mechanisms control both dauer larval development in C. elegans and L3i morphogenesis in S. stercoralis.(More)
Skin-penetrating parasitic nematodes infect approximately one billion people worldwide and are responsible for some of the most common neglected tropical diseases. The infective larvae of skin-penetrating nematodes are thought to search for hosts using sensory cues, yet their host-seeking behavior is poorly understood. We conducted an in-depth analysis of(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the ability of a single injection of a sustained-release formulation of moxidectin (moxidectin SR) to protect dogs against heartworm infection for 180 days after inoculation with infective third-stage larvae (L3) of Dirofilaria immitis. ANIMALS 32 adult mixed-breed dogs. PROCEDURE Dogs were allocated to 4 groups on the basis of weight(More)
The parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis, has several alternative developmental pathways. Upon exiting the host (humans, other primates and dogs) in faeces, 1st-stage larvae (L1) can enter the direct pathway, in which they moult twice to reach the infective 3rd-stage. Alternatively, if they enter the indirect pathway, they moult 4 times and become(More)
This study examines the role of complement components C3 and C5 in innate and adaptive protective immunity to larval Strongyloides stercoralis in mice. Larval survival in naive C3(-/-) mice was increased as compared with survival in wild-type mice, whereas C3aR(-/-) and wild-type mice had equivalent levels of larval killing. Larval killing in naive mice was(More)
BACKGROUND Differences between noninfective first-stage (L1) and infective third-stage (L3i) larvae of parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis at the molecular level are relatively uncharacterized. DNA microarrays were developed and utilized for this purpose. METHODS AND FINDINGS Oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the array were designed to(More)
Owing to its ability to switch between free-living and parasitic modes of development, Parastrongyloides trichosuri represents a valuable model with which to study the evolution of parasitism among the nematodes, especially aspects pertaining to morphogenesis of infective third-stage larvae. In the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, developmental(More)
Protective immunity to larval Strongyloides stercoralis in mice has been shown to be dependent on antibody, complement, and granulocytes. The goals of the present study was to determine the following: (1) whether human serum could passively transfer immunity to mice, (2) the mechanism by which the serum mediated killing, and (3) whether the antigens (Ags)(More)