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Genetic transformation is a potential tool for analyzing gene function and thereby identifying new drug and vaccine targets in parasitic nematodes, which adversely affect more than one billion people. We have previously developed a robust system for transgenesis in Strongyloides spp. using gonadal microinjection for gene transfer. In this system, transgenes(More)
The financial implications of implementing quality improvements are often poorly understood. Simply put, does improving quality yield a return on investment? We examine four cases--management of high-cost pharmaceuticals, diabetes management, smoking cessation, and wellness programs in the workplace--to understand the financial and clinical implications of(More)
The infectious form of many parasitic nematodes, which afflict over one billion people globally, is a developmentally arrested third-stage larva (L3i). The parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis differs from other nematode species that infect humans, in that its life cycle includes both parasitic and free-living forms, which can be leveraged to(More)
OBJECTIVE To test the ability of a single injection of a sustained-release formulation of moxidectin (moxidectin SR) to protect dogs against heartworm infection for 180 days after inoculation with infective third-stage larvae (L3) of Dirofilaria immitis. ANIMALS 32 adult mixed-breed dogs. PROCEDURE Dogs were allocated to 4 groups on the basis of weight(More)
Infective third-stage larvae (L3i) of the human parasite Strongyloides stercoralis share many morphological, developmental, and behavioral attributes with Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larvae. The 'dauer hypothesis' predicts that the same molecular genetic mechanisms control both dauer larval development in C. elegans and L3i morphogenesis in S. stercoralis.(More)
BACKGROUND Human strongyloidiasis varies from a chronic but limited infection in normal hosts to hyperinfection in patients treated with corticosteroids or with HTLV-1 co-infection. Regulatory T cells dampen immune responses to infections. How human strongyloidiasis is controlled and how HTLV-1 infection affects this control are not clear. We hypothesize(More)
BACKGROUND Differences between noninfective first-stage (L1) and infective third-stage (L3i) larvae of parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis at the molecular level are relatively uncharacterized. DNA microarrays were developed and utilized for this purpose. METHODS AND FINDINGS Oligonucleotide hybridization probes for the array were designed to(More)
The parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis, has several alternative developmental pathways. Upon exiting the host (humans, other primates and dogs) in faeces, 1st-stage larvae (L1) can enter the direct pathway, in which they moult twice to reach the infective 3rd-stage. Alternatively, if they enter the indirect pathway, they moult 4 times and become(More)
Skin-penetrating parasitic nematodes infect approximately one billion people worldwide and are responsible for some of the most common neglected tropical diseases. The infective larvae of skin-penetrating nematodes are thought to search for hosts using sensory cues, yet their host-seeking behavior is poorly understood. We conducted an in-depth analysis of(More)
Owing to its ability to switch between free-living and parasitic modes of development, Parastrongyloides trichosuri represents a valuable model with which to study the evolution of parasitism among the nematodes, especially aspects pertaining to morphogenesis of infective third-stage larvae. In the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, developmental(More)