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Peptide growth factors may play a role in patterning of the early embryo, particularly in the induction of mesoderm. We have explored the role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in early Xenopus development by expressing a dominant negative mutant form of the FGF receptor. Using a functional assay in frog oocytes, we found that a truncated form of the(More)
We have examined the role of FGF signalling in the development of muscle and notochord and in the expression of early mesodermal markers in Xenopus embryos. Disruption of the FGF signalling pathway by expression of a dominant negative construct of the FGF receptor (XFD) generally results in gastrulation defects that are later evident in the formation of the(More)
Normal pattern formation during embryonic development requires the regulation of cellular competence to respond to inductive signals. In the Xenopus blastula, vegetal cells release mesoderm-inducing factors but themselves become endoderm, suggesting that vegetal cells may be prevented from expressing mesodermal genes in response to the signals that they(More)
Recent evidence suggests that fibroblast growth factor (FGF) is a primary mesoderm inducer in Xenopus development. We have isolated a full-length cDNA clone for the Xenopus FGF receptor. Like other FGF receptors, the Xenopus homolog is a membrane-spanning protein with a split intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. The Xenopus FGF receptor mRNA is present as(More)
Early frog embryogenesis depends on a maternal pool of mRNA to execute critical intercellular signalling events. FGF receptor-1, which is required for normal development, is stored as a stable, untranslated maternal mRNA transcript in the fully grown immature oocyte, but is translationally activated at meiotic maturation. We have identified a short(More)
Despite intense study preeclampsia remains enigmatic and a major cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Most investigative efforts have focused on the hypertensive component of this disorder with reduced attention given to other equally important characteristics. Increased sensitivity to pressor agents and activation of the coagulation cascade(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although sonography is the primary imaging technique for evaluating the developing fetus, significant limitations exist in the sonographic prenatal diagnosis of many brain disorders. Fast MR imaging is increasingly being used to determine the underlying cause of nonspecific fetal CNS abnormalities detected sonographically and to(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the effects of gestational age and maternal weight on percent fetal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in maternal plasma and the change in fetal cfDNA amounts within the same patient over time. METHODS The cfDNA was extracted from maternal plasma from 22 384 singleton pregnancies of at least 10 weeks gestation undergoing the Harmony(TM)(More)
BACKGROUND The invertebrate and vertebrate Smad proteins have recently been identified as important mediators of the responses to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and related factors. We have previously shown that Smad3 and Smad4 (the product of the tumor suppressor gene DPC 4) strongly synergize as mediators of TGF-beta signaling, and that(More)
OBJECTIVE Evaluate noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) with cell-free DNA as a screening method for trisomies 21, 18, and 13 in an obstetrical clinical practice setting. METHODS Observational study of pregnant women who underwent prenatal screening for fetal trisomy from 30 July 2012 to 1 December 2012. NIPT was offered to all patients in addition to(More)