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Peptide growth factors may play a role in patterning of the early embryo, particularly in the induction of mesoderm. We have explored the role of fibroblast growth factor (FGF) in early Xenopus development by expressing a dominant negative mutant form of the FGF receptor. Using a functional assay in frog oocytes, we found that a truncated form of the(More)
We have examined the role of FGF signalling in the development of muscle and notochord and in the expression of early mesodermal markers in Xenopus embryos. Disruption of the FGF signalling pathway by expression of a dominant negative construct of the FGF receptor (XFD) generally results in gastrulation defects that are later evident in the formation of the(More)
BACKGROUND The invertebrate and vertebrate Smad proteins have recently been identified as important mediators of the responses to transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) and related factors. We have previously shown that Smad3 and Smad4 (the product of the tumor suppressor gene DPC 4) strongly synergize as mediators of TGF-beta signaling, and that(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although sonography is the primary imaging technique for evaluating the developing fetus, significant limitations exist in the sonographic prenatal diagnosis of many brain disorders. Fast MR imaging is increasingly being used to determine the underlying cause of nonspecific fetal CNS abnormalities detected sonographically and to(More)
FGF signaling is critical for establishing the Xenopus laevis embryonic body plan and requires the expression of functional FGF receptor during early embryogenesis. FGF receptor-1 (XFGFR) maternal mRNA is present in immature oocytes, but the protein is not expressed until oocyte maturation. In this report we demonstrate that endogenous XFGFR translation(More)
OBJECTIVE Evaluate the clinical and economic consequences of fetal trisomy 21 (T21) screening with non-invasive prenatal testing (NIPT) in high-risk pregnant women. METHODS Using a decision-analytic model, we estimated the number of T21 cases detected, the number of invasive procedures performed, corresponding euploid fetal losses and total costs for(More)
The developing vertebrate nervous system arises from ectoderm in response to inductive signals from the dorsal mesoderm, or Spemann organizer. It displays pronounced anteroposterior (AP) pattern, but the mechanism that generates this pattern is poorly understood. We demonstrate that the inducing ability of dorsal mesoderm is regionalized along the AP axis(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the clinical performance of non-invasive prenatal testing for trisomy 21, 18, and 13 using targeted cell-free DNA (cfDNA) analysis. METHODS Targeted cfDNA analysis using DANSR™ and FORTE™ with microarray quantitation was used to evaluate the risk of trisomy 21, 18, and 13 in blinded samples from 799 singleton, twin, natural, and IVF(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the relationship between a priori risk for fetal trisomy and the fraction of fetal cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in maternal blood. METHODS A comparative analysis on fetal cfDNA amounts was performed in subjects stratified into a priori risk groups based on maternal age, prenatal screening results, or nuchal translucency measurement. (More)
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