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This study is a 7.5-year follow-up of a population-based series of twins with multiple sclerosis (MS) whose mean age now exceeds 50 years. The twin pairs were identified through the Canadian nationwide system of MS clinics and were drawn from a population of 5,463 patients. After 7.5 years, the monozygotic concordance rate increased from 25.9 to 30.8% and(More)
This article extends our previous reports that multiple sclerosis can cause a visual dysfunction better described as a distortion than as a blurring of vision. An earlier paper reported that multiple sclerosis spares visual acuity in some patients while reducing visual sensitivity for less fine detail. Specifically, these patients experience a loss of(More)
In 48 patients with multiple sclerosis sine-wave gratings were used to test visual sensitivity for coarse, medium, and fine detail rather than measuring visual acuity for fine detail only, as in conventional clinical tests. In 20/48 patients the test revealed a visual defect of neural origin, qualitatively different from that caused by refractive error. In(More)
Although fatigue is recognized as a symptom of MS, there have been insufficient methods for evaluating this symptom. We administered the Fatigue Impact Scale to 85 MS patients and 20 hypertensive patients. Neurologic impairment, mental health, and general health status were also assessed. MS patients reported significantly higher fatigue impact than(More)
Both atmospheric [CO2] and average surface temperatures are predicted to increase with potentially different, additive or opposing, effects on leaf quality and insect herbivore activity. Few studies have directly measured the interactive effects of concurrent changes in [CO2] and temperature on insect herbivores. None have done so over the entire(More)
Previous studies have reported variable prevalence of pain in multiple sclerosis (MS) and have not documented the impact of pain on daily living. In this consecutive series, we report on data collected from structured interviews with 85 patients seen within a 16-month period at a regional referral clinic. The prevalence of pain for the month preceding(More)
The objective of this work was to assess the effect of interferon beta-1a (Avonex) on the rate of development of clinically definite multiple sclerosis and brain magnetic resonance imaging changes in subgroups based on type of presenting event, baseline brain magnetic resonance imaging parameters, and demographic factors in the Controlled High-Risk Subjects(More)
We carried out a double blind control study of fatigue in 32 patients with multiple sclerosis, comparing amantadine hydrochloride 100 mg twice a day and placebo. On amantadine 31% had marked improvement; 15.6% moderate improvement; 15.6% mild improvement; and 36.5% unchanged. On placebo, none noted marked improvement; one claimed moderate improvement on(More)