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Putative sites of acetylcholine synthesis in the retina of the embryonic and posthatched chick were localized immunohistochemically with antisera to choline acetyltransferase; the resultant choline acetyltransferase-like immunoreactivity (ChAT-IR) was compared to demonstrated sites of acetyltransferase (AChE) activity, and changes were followed in(More)
Cholinergic amacrine cells in the rabbit retina have been detected by localizing choline acetyltransferase-like immunoreactivity. The characteristic array of normally placed and displaced amacrine cells was detected, as were two major synaptic plexuses in the inner plexiform layer. At the ultrastructural level, the most striking feature was the existence of(More)
Kainic acid (KA, 12.5-100 nmol) or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA 25-250 nmol) was injected into the vitreous of one eye of urethane anaesthetized cats. Pattern electroretinograms (PERGs) were recorded to transient contrast reversing bars. Scotopic luminance electroretinograms (ERGs) were recorded to blue flashes. All doses of KA reduced the oscillatory(More)
PURPOSE Reduced tear film stability is reported to contribute to dry eye. Rabbits are known to have a more stable tear film than humans. Thus, we sought to examine the tears of rabbits and humans for metal cations, and to test how they influence tear film stability. METHODS Tears were collected from 10 healthy humans and 6 rabbits. Tear osmolality was(More)
PURPOSE Human meibomian lipids are the major part of the lipid layer of the tear film. Their surfactant properties enable their spread across the aqueous layer and help maintain a stable tear film. The purpose of this study was to investigate surfactant properties of human meibomian lipids in vitro and to determine effects of different physical conditions(More)
Somatostatin-like immunoreactive amacrine cells of the chicken retina have been characterized by immunohistochemistry at the light and electron microscope levels. The cell bodies were set back from the junction of the inner nuclear and inner plexiform layers, and prominent fibre plexuses were found in sublaminas 1 and 3-5 of the inner plexiform layer. The(More)
Cholinergic amacrine cells of the chicken retina were detected by immunohistochemistry using an antiserum against affinity-purified chicken choline acetyltransferase. Three populations of cells were detected: type I cholinergic amacrine cells had cell bodies on the border of the inner nuclear and inner plexiform layers and formed a prominent laminar band in(More)
AIM To look for a subcomponent of the mFERG generated at the optic nerve head and increasing in latency with distance from it. To compare multifocal electroretinogram (mFERG, mPERG) changes to those in full field ERGs and transient and steady state pattern and focal ERGs (PERGs, FERGs) in cats with total unilateral optic nerve section. METHOD We recorded(More)
We recorded pattern electroretinograms, scotopic threshold responses, oscillatory potentials and ganzfeld flash electroretinograms in patients with glaucoma or other optic nerve diseases and in cats with inner retinal damage caused by intravitreal injections of kainic acid. In both studies, the scotopic b-wave and the scotopic threshold responses were(More)
In the chicken retina, choline acetyltransferase-like immunoreactivity (ChAT-LI) defines three populations of cholinergic amacrine cells and two terminal bands in the inner plexiform layer (IPL). Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) histochemistry defines two prominent bands within the IPL which corresponded to those containing ChAT. Other AChE-positive bands in the(More)