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Recognizing a deficiency of indispensable amino acids (IAAs) for protein synthesis is vital for dietary selection in metazoans, including humans. Cells in the brain's anterior piriform cortex (APC) are sensitive to IAA deficiency, signaling diet rejection and foraging for complementary IAA sources, but the mechanism is unknown. Here we report that the(More)
We have investigated the axonal transport of neurofilament protein in cultured neurons by constricting single axons with fine glass fibers. We observed a rapid accumulation of anterogradely and retrogradely transported membranous organelles on both sides of the constrictions and a more gradual accumulation of neurofilament protein proximal to the(More)
Interoceptive signals have a powerful impact on the motivation and emotional learning of animals during stressful experiences. However, current insights into the organization of interoceptive pathways stem mainly from observation and manipulation of adults, and little is known regarding the functional development of viscerosensory signaling pathways. To(More)
The anterior piriform cortex (APC) functions as a chemosensor for indispensable amino acid deficiency and responds to this deficiency with increased activity, as indicated by observations including averaged evoked-potentials and c-fos expression in the APC. Little is known of the intracellular signaling mechanisms that mediate this deficiency-related(More)
Pseudoreplication is one of the most influential methodological issues in ecological and animal behavior research today. At its inception, the idea of pseudoreplication highlighted important concerns about the design and analysis of experiments in ecology. The doctrine purported to provide a unified view of experimental design and analysis, wherein precise(More)
Omnivores must obtain diets balanced with respect to amino acids to support growth and protein synthesis. The standard paradigm used to study behavioral responses to amino acid deficiency combines deficient diets with dietary novelty. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of amino acid deficiency on the first meal of rats without the(More)
Diets deficient in an indispensable amino acid have long been known to suppress food intake in rats. Detection of dietary deficiency takes place in the anterior piriform cortex (APC). Recent studies showed that the response to amino acid deficiency takes as little as 15 min to develop, but few data exist to correlate the concentration of amino acids in the(More)
Omnivores show recognition of essential (indispensable) amino acid deficiency by changing their feeding behavior within 20 min, yet the cellular mechanisms of amino acid sensation in eukaryotes are poorly understood. The anterior piriform cortex (APC) of the brain in rats or its analog in birds likely houses the in vivo amino acid chemosensor. Because amino(More)
Rats quickly recognize and reject diets deficient in an essential amino acid. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the anterior piriform cortex (APC), the site traditionally recognized as the amino acid chemosensor, plays a role in this early behavior. Rats had cannulae implanted bilaterally into the APC, and were injected with either saline(More)