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A kinematic model has been developed for simulation and prediction of the prehensile capabilities of the human hand. The kinematic skeleton of the hand is characterized by ideal joints and simple segments. Finger-joint angulation is characterized by yaw (abduction-adduction), pitch (flexion-extension) and roll (axial rotation) angles. The model is based on(More)
Several physical stressors, including repetitive, sustained, and forceful exertions, awkward postures, localized mechanical stress, highly dynamic movements, exposures to low temperatures, and vibration have been linked to increased risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Repetitive exertions have been among the most widely studied of these(More)
This study examines the relationship between forearm EMGs and keyboard reaction forces in 10 people during keyboard tasks performed at a comfortable speed. A linear fit of EMG force data for each person and finger was calculated during static fingertip loading. An average r2 of .71 was observed for forces below 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction(More)
This paper presents a conceptual model for the pathogenesis of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The model contains sets of cascading exposure, dose, capacity, and response variables, such that response at one level can act as dose at the next. Response to one or more doses can diminish or increase the capacity for responding to successive doses. The(More)
The major goal of this investigation was to collect statistically-based anthropometry describing the kinematics of the human hand and to model this anthropometry as a function of external hand measurements, so that it may be predicted noninvasively. Joint centres were anatomically estimated as the centre of curvature of the head of the bone proximal to the(More)
To determine normative values for nerve conduction studies among workers, we selected a subset of 326 workers from 955 subjects who participated in medical surveys in the workplace. The reference cohort was composed exclusively of active workers, in contrast to the typical convenience samples. Nerve conduction measures included bilateral median and ulnar(More)
This paper considers one way that occupational health professionals can assess the force exerted by keyboard users and the possible relationship between that force and the key force-displacement relationship. First, three personal-computer keyboards with the standard QWERTY layouts were tested as described by the American National Standard for Human Factors(More)
Increased weight and, more recently, body mass index (BMI), have been suggested as risk factors for carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). In an effort to determine the relative risk (RR) of obesity in the development of CTS, 949 patients who had an evaluation of the right upper extremity that included motor and sensory conduction studies of the median and ulnar(More)
Eighteen subjects drove screws with air-powered tools into perforated sheet metal at three vertical and two horizontal work locations using three different work paces (8, 10, and 12 screws/min). Subjects drove screws with a pistol-shaped tool on the vertical orientation at knee, elbow, and shoulder height. They used an in-line tool to drive screws on the(More)