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The analysis of synthetic genetic interaction networks can reveal how biological systems achieve a high level of complexity with a limited repertoire of components. Studies in yeast and bacteria have taken advantage of collections of deletion strains to construct matrices of quantitative interaction profiles and infer gene function. Yet comparable(More)
PURPOSE We assess the influence of the limits of pelvic lymph node dissection on survival following radical cystectomy for bladder cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS From January 1990 to September 1997, 194 patients underwent radical cystectomy without prior treatment. Between March 1993 and September 1997, 126 consecutive patients underwent radical cystectomy(More)
The bladder cancer genome harbors numerous oncogenic mutations and aberrantly methylated gene promoters. The aim of our study was to generate a profile of these alterations and investigate their use as biomarkers in urine sediments for noninvasive detection of bladder cancer. We systematically screened FGFR3, PIK3CA, TP53, HRAS, NRAS and KRAS for mutations(More)
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains a difficult clinical problem to treat and manage. We have reviewed our treatment of 40 patients treated at a single institution with PUVA (ultraviolet irradiation and psoralen) over a 14 year period. Thirty-five patients were treated for refractory chronic GVHD and five patients were treated at presentation(More)
The branched DNA hybridization assay has been improved by the inclusion of the novel nucleotides, isoC and isoG, in the amplification sequences to prevent non-specific hybridization. The novel isoC, isoG-containing amplification sequences have no detectable interaction with any natural DNA sequence. The control of non-specific hybridization in turn permits(More)
Notch signaling plays a fundamental role in cellular differentiation and has been linked to human diseases, including cancer. We report the use of comprehensive RNAi analyses to dissect Notch regulation and its connections to cellular pathways. A cell-based RNAi screen identified 900 candidate Notch regulators on a genome-wide scale. The subsequent use of a(More)
Genetic screens for phenotypic similarity have made key contributions to associating genes with biological processes. With RNA interference (RNAi), highly parallel phenotyping of loss-of-function effects in cells has become feasible. One of the current challenges however is the computational categorization of visual phenotypes and the prediction of(More)
BACKGROUND Injection site reactions are well recognized in patients treated with etanercept. Previous reports describe histologic findings of a cell-mediated T(H)1 reaction, with CD8+ T cells composing the majority of the dermal infiltrate. OBSERVATIONS A pruritic, erythematous, edematous patch occurred on the right thigh of a 57-year-old white woman(More)
The transcription factor OCT4 plays a crucial role in the earliest differentiation of the mammalian embryo and in self-renewal of embryonic stem cells. However, it remains controversial whether this gene is also expressed in somatic tissues. Here, we use a combination of RT-PCR on whole and microdissected tissues, in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry(More)