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The analysis of synthetic genetic interaction networks can reveal how biological systems achieve a high level of complexity with a limited repertoire of components. Studies in yeast and bacteria have taken advantage of collections of deletion strains to construct matrices of quantitative interaction profiles and infer gene function. Yet comparable(More)
Melatonin, the secretory product of the pineal gland, is known to be neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia, which is so far mostly attributed to its antioxidant properties. Here we show that melatonin directly inhibits the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mtPTP). mtPTP contributes to the pathology of ischemia by releasing calcium and cytochrome c(More)
The nucleus tractus solitarius/dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve (NTS/DMV) area was perfused by the push-pull perfusion technique in anesthetized rats, and perfusates were assayed for arginine vasopressin (AVP) and oxytocin (OXT) immunoreactivity. As compared with controls, electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral paraventricular nucleus (PVN)(More)
Microdialysis provides a direct approach to monitor changes in interneuronal communication by monitoring the fluctuation of local, extracellular concentrations of potential neurotransmitters/neuromodulators. The present article is based on more than 10 years experience in performing microdialysis experiments in freely moving animals with inexpensive(More)
The intra- and extracellular concentrations of 16 metabolites were measured in chemostat (D = 0.1 h−1) anaerobic cultures of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae CEN.PK-113-7D growing on minimal medium. Two independent sampling workflows were employed: (i) conventional cold methanol quenching and (ii) a differential approach. Metabolites were quantified in(More)
The effect of direct intrahypothalamic nitric oxide (NO) administration on the release of selected amino acids in the hypothalamic supraoptic nucleus (SON) with and without concomitant forced swimming was investigated. Adult male Wistar rats were chronically fitted with U-shaped microdialysis probes in the SON and forced to swim for 10-min in 20-degree C(More)
RNA interference (RNAi) screens have enabled the systematic analysis of many biological processes in cultured cells and whole organisms. The success of such screens and the interpretation of the data depend on the stringent design of RNAi libraries. We describe and validate NEXT-RNAi, a software for the automated design and evaluation of RNAi sequences on a(More)
Genetic screens for phenotypic similarity have made key contributions to associating genes with biological processes. With RNA interference (RNAi), highly parallel phenotyping of loss-of-function effects in cells has become feasible. One of the current challenges however is the computational categorization of visual phenotypes and the prediction of(More)
BACKGROUND The recent literature suggests that free radicals and reactive oxygen species may account for many pathologies, including those of the nervous system. MATERIALS AND METHODS The influence of various reactive oxygen species on the rate of glutamate uptake by astrocytes was investigated on monolayers of primary cultures of mouse cortical(More)
Gene-gene interactions shape complex phenotypes and modify the effects of mutations during development and disease. The effects of statistical gene-gene interactions on phenotypes have been used to assign genes to functional modules. However, directional, epistatic interactions, which reflect regulatory relationships between genes, have been challenging to(More)