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BACKGROUND Interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are expressed by microglia and infiltrating macrophages following ischemic stroke. Whereas IL-1beta is primarily neurotoxic in ischemic stroke, TNF-alpha may have neurotoxic and/or neuroprotective effects. We investigated whether IL-1beta and TNF-alpha are synthesized by(More)
Reactive gliosis is a prominent feature of neurodegenerative and neuroinflammatory disease in the CNS, yet the stimuli that drive this response are not known. There is growing appreciation that signaling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs), which is key to generating innate responses to infection, may have pathogen-independent roles. We show that TLR2 was(More)
Astrocytes are the major cellular component of the blood-brain barrier glia limitans and act as regulators of leukocyte infiltration via chemokine expression. We have studied angiotensin-II receptor Type 1 (AT1) and related NF-κB signaling in astrocytes. Angiotensin II derives from cleavage of angiotensin I by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE),(More)
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are best known as initiators of the innate immune response to pathogens. Recent reports now reveal intriguing roles for TLRs in the central nervous system (CNS). These include the regulation of neuroinflammation and of neurite outgrowth. The archetypal Toll protein in Drosophila melanogaster was implicated in the development of(More)
The Type I interferons (IFN), beta (IFN-β) and the alpha family (IFN-α), act through a common receptor and have anti-inflammatory effects. IFN-β is used to treat multiple sclerosis (MS) and is effective against experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an animal model for MS. Mice with EAE show elevated levels of Type I IFNs in the central nervous(More)
The vital gradients of Na(+) and K(+) across the plasma membrane of animal cells are maintained by the Na,K-ATPase, an αβ enzyme complex, whose α subunit carries out the ion transport and ATP hydrolysis. The specific roles of the β subunit isoforms are less clear, though β2 is essential for motor physiology in mammals. Here, we show that compared to β1 and(More)
Cataract is the leading cause of blindness, especially in the developing world. To ease access to treatment, we have proposed that cataract could be treated non-invasively by photobleaching of the chemically modified proteins responsible for cataract formation. The present study was aimed at examining the optical and biochemical effects of the proposed(More)
The behavioral phenotypes of mice are the result of a complex interplay between overall health, sensory abilities, learning and memory, motor function as well as developmental milestones, feeding, sexual, parental, and social behaviors. This chapter lists a selected number of key behavioral tests, specifically designed to assay fundamental behavioral(More)
BACKGROUND Glutathione concentration in the lens decreases in aging and cataractous lenses, providing a marker for tissue condition. Experimental procedures requiring unfrozen lenses from donor banks rely on transportation in storage medium, affecting lens homeostasis and alterations in glutathione levels. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of(More)