Thomas Herdegen

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This article reviews findings up to the end of 1997 about the inducible transcription factors (ITFs) c-Jun, JunB, JunD, c-Fos, FosB, Fra-1, Fra-2, Krox-20 (Egr-2) and Krox-24 (NGFI-A, Egr-1, Zif268); and the constitutive transcription factors (CTFs) CREB, CREM, ATF-2 and SRF as they pertain to gene expression in the mammalian nervous system. In the first(More)
Axon interruption elicits a complex neuronal response that leaves neurons poised precariously between death and regeneration. The signals underlying this dichotomy are not fully understood. The transcription factor c-Jun is one of the earliest and most consistent markers for neurons that respond to nerve-fiber transection, and its expression can be related(More)
The c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs, also called stress activated protein kinases. SAPKs) and p38 kinases constitute together with extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) the family of MAP kinases. Whereas the functions of JNKs under physiological conditions are largely unknown, there is raising evidence that JNKs are potent effectors of apoptosis or(More)
Transcription factor c-Jun is proposed to control neuronal cell death and survival, but its activation by N-terminal phosphorylation and the underlying activity of the c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs) remain to be elucidated in the adult mammalian brain. We generated a polyclonal antiserum that specifically recognizes c-Jun phosphorylated at its serine 73(More)
Programmed cell death plays an important role in the neuronal degeneration after cerebral ischemia, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. Here we examined, in vivo and in vitro, whether ischemia-induced neuronal death involves death-inducing ligand/receptor systems such as CD95 and tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand(More)
Expression of the protein products of the immediate-early genes (IEGs), members of the fos, jun and krox families (Jun, Fos, and Krox, resp.) was investigated in the spinal cord and sensory ganglia (DRG) of normal rats; and following transection of, block of axonal transport in, or electrical stimulation of their peripheral axons. The nuclei of many moto-(More)
Up-regulation of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 exacerbates neuronal injury after cerebral ischemia and contributes to neuronal cell death. The present study clarifies the function of cerebral peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor(s) gamma (PPARgamma) in the expression of COX-2 in neurons of the rat brain after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with(More)
Lithium has been used as an effective mood-stabilizing drug for the treatment of manic episodes and depression for 50 years. More recently, lithium has been found to protect neurons from death induced by a wide array of neurotoxic insults. However, the molecular basis for the prophylactic effects of lithium have remained obscure. A target of lithium,(More)
Jun and Fos proteins are induced and activated following most physiological and pathophysiological stimuli in the brain. Only few data allow conclusions about distinct functions of AP-1 proteins in neurodegeneration and neuroregeneration, and these functions mainly refer to c-Jun and its activation by JNKs. Apoptotic functions of activated c-Jun affect(More)
c-Jun is considered a major regulator of both neuronal death and regeneration. Stress in primary cultured CNS neurons induces phosphorylation of c-Jun serines 63 and 73 and increased c-Jun protein. However, total c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activity does not increase, and no satisfactory explanation for this paradox has been available. Here we(More)