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— A fully electronic medium density DNA micro array is presented using a CMOS process extended by gold electrodes. The chip provides 128 sensor sites, in-sensor site current-mode A/D conversion, peripheral circuitry including bandgap and current references, D/A-converters to provide electrode bias voltages, calibration circuitry, and a 6 pin interface for… (More)
CMOS-based sensor array chips provide new and attractive features as compared to today's standard tools for medical, diagnostic, and biotechnical applications. Examples for molecule- and cell-based approaches and related circuit design issues are discussed.