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AIMS To evaluate the effects of the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitor empagliflozin added to metformin for 12 weeks in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS This dose-ranging, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial randomized 495 participants with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on metformin [haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) >7 to ≤10%] to(More)
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSdIn this randomized, open-label, 78-week extension study of two 12-week, blinded, dose-finding studies of empagliflozin (monotherapy and add-on to metformin) with open-label comparators, 272 patients received 10 mg empagliflozin (166 as add-on to metformin), 275 received 25 mg empagliflozin (166 as add-on to metformin), 56(More)
OBJECTIVE To investigate the long-term safety and efficacy of empagliflozin, a sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor; sitagliptin; and metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this randomized, open-label, 78-week extension study of two 12-week, blinded, dose-finding studies of empagliflozin (monotherapy and add-on to(More)
AIM To examine preferences for oral medication attributes among participants with early and advanced type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in the UK using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). METHODS A web-based DCE was administered where participants indicated which medication they preferred from two different hypothetical oral anti-diabetic (OAD) medication(More)
OBJECTIVE Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors cause substantially less weight loss than expected from the energy excreted via glycosuria. Our aim was to analyze this phenomenon quantitatively. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Eighty-six patients with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c 7.8 ± 0.8% [62 ± 9 mmol/mol], estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR](More)
We investigated the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin over 24 weeks in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) using pooled data from four phase III trials. In these trials, patients were randomized to receive empagliflozin 10 mg, empagliflozin 25 mg or placebo as monotherapy or add-on to metformin, metformin plus sulphonylurea or pioglitazone ±(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Data now indicate that proinsulin C-peptide exerts important physiological effects and shows the characteristics of an endogenous peptide hormone. This study aimed to investigate the influence of C-peptide and fragments thereof on erythrocyte deformability and to elucidate the relevant signal transduction pathway. METHODS Blood samples(More)
Abbreviations ΔPF Filtration pressure across the glomerular capillaries πG Glomerular oncotic pressure FENa Fractional excretion of sodium KFG Ultrafiltration coefficient PGLO Glomerular hydrostatic pressure RA Afferent renal arteriolar resistances RAAS Renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system RE Efferent renal arteriolar resistances SGLT2 Sodium–glucose(More)
Eighty-six patients with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c = 7.86 0.8% [62 6 9 mmol/mol], estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] = 89 6 19 mL · min · 1.73 m) received empagliflozin (25 mg/day) for 90 weeks with frequent (n = 11) assessments of body weight, eGFR, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG). Time-dependent glucose filtration was calculated as the product of(More)
BACKGROUND This study evaluated the effect of empagliflozin on postprandial glucose (PPG) and 24-hour glucose variability in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS Patients (N = 60; baseline mean [SD] HbA1c 7.91 [0.80]%; body mass index 24.3 [3.2] kg/m(2)) were randomized to receive empagliflozin 10 mg (n = 20), empagliflozin 25(More)