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The hydrogen bond is the most important of all directional intermolecular interactions. It is operative in determining molecular conformation, molecular aggregation, and the function of a vast number of chemical systems ranging from inorganic to biological. Research into hydrogen bonds experienced a stagnant period in the 1980s, but re-opened around 1990,(More)
A comprehensive structural analysis of X--H...pi hydrogen bonding in proteins is performed based on 592 published high-resolution crystal structures (< or = 1.6 A). All potential donors and acceptors are considered, including acidic C--H groups. The sample contains 1311 putative X--H...pi hydrogen bonds with N--H, O--H or S--H donors, that is about one per(More)
hK7 or human stratum corneum chymotryptic enzyme belongs to the human tissue kallikrein (hKs) serine proteinase family and is strongly expressed in the upper layers of the epidermis. It participates in skin desquamation but is also implicated in diverse skin diseases and is a potential biomarker of ovarian cancer. We have solved x-ray structures of(More)
Uridine diphosphate-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase) represents a ubiquitous enzyme, which catalyzes the formation of UDP-glucose, a key metabolite of the carbohydrate pathways of all organisms. In the protozoan parasite Leishmania major, which causes a broad spectrum of diseases and is transmitted to humans by sand fly vectors, UGPase represents a(More)
PURPOSE This study aims to investigate physical performance and hematological changes in 32 elite male team-sport players after 14 d of "live high-train low" (LHTL) training in normobaric hypoxia (≥14 h·d at 2800-3000 m) combined with repeated-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5-s sprints with 25 s of passive recovery) either in normobaric(More)
PURPOSE MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play an important role as regulators of gene expression in tumourigenesis by controlling many biological processes in growth, development, differentiation and apoptosis. Previous studies have shown an altered expression of specific miRNAs in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). But the function in cancerogenesis and metastasis(More)
Microbial transcription modulator NusG interacts with RNA polymerase and termination factor rho, displaying striking functional homology to eukaryotic Spt5. The protein is also a translational regulator. We have determined crystal structures of Aquifex aeolicus NusG showing a modular design: an N-terminal RNP-like domain, a C-terminal element with a KOW(More)
In end-stage renal disease patients anemia is known to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and death. In a monocenter retrospective analysis, we investigated 207 stable patients (68 women/139 men) who underwent a first renal transplantation. Immunosuppressive therapy was performed with either cyclosporine plus mycophenolate mofetil,(More)
Buried water molecules and the water molecules in the active-site gorge are analyzed for five crystal structures of acetylcholinesterase from Torpedo californica in the resolution range 2.2-2.5 A (native enzyme, and four inhibitor complexes). A total of 45 buried hydration sites are identified, which are populated with between 36 and 41 water molecules.(More)
The expanded genetic code in combination with site-directed mutagenesis was used to probe spectroscopic and structural roles of tryptophan (Trp) residues in Aequorea victoria green fluorescent proteins (avGFPs). Nine different halogen-, chalcogen-, and methyl-containing Trp isosteric analogues and surrogates were incorporated into avGFPs containing indole(More)