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The SNARE hypothesis holds that a transport vesicle chooses its target for fusion when a soluble NSF attachment protein (SNAP) receptor on the vesicle (v-SNARE) pairs with its cognate t-SNARE at the target membrane. Three synaptosomal membrane proteins have previously been identified: syntaxin, SNAP-25 (t-SNAREs), and vesicle-associated membrane protein(More)
The N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive fusion protein (NSF) and the soluble NSF attachment proteins (SNAPs) appear to be essential components of the intracellular membrane fusion apparatus. An affinity purification procedure based on the natural binding of these proteins to their targets was used to isolate SNAP receptors (SNAREs) from bovine brain. Remarkably, the(More)
Recombinant v- and t-SNARE proteins reconstituted into separate lipid bilayer vesicles assemble into SNAREpins-SNARE complexes linking two membranes. This leads to spontaneous fusion of the docked membranes at physiological temperature. Docked unfused intermediates can accumulate at lower temperatures and can fuse when brought to physiological temperature.(More)
Rab proteins are generally required for transport vesicle docking. We have exploited yeast secretion mutants to demonstrate that a rab protein is required for v-SNAREs and t-SNAREs to assemble. The absence of the rab protein in the docking complex suggests that, in a broad sense, rab proteins participate in a reaction catalyzing SNARE complex assembly. In(More)
Membrane-enveloped vesicles travel among the compartments of the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, delivering their specific cargo to programmed locations by membrane fusion. The pairing of vesicle v-SNAREs (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) with target membrane t-SNAREs has a central role in intracellular membrane fusion.(More)
COPI-coated vesicle budding from lipid bilayers whose composition resembles mammalian Golgi membranes requires coatomer, ARF, GTP, and cytoplasmic tails of putative cargo receptors (p24 family proteins) or membrane cargo proteins (containing the KKXX retrieval signal) emanating from the bilayer surface. Liposome-derived COPI-coated vesicles are similar to(More)
To fuse transport vesicles with target membranes, proteins of the SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors) complex must be located on both the vesicle (v-SNARE) and the target membrane (t-SNARE). In yeast, four integral membrane proteins, Sed5, Bos1, Sec22 and Bet1 (refs 2-6), each probably contribute a single helix to(More)
Electron microscope immunocytochemistry reveals that both anterograde-directed (proinsulin and VSV G protein) and retrograde-directed (the KDEL receptor) cargo are present in COPI-coated vesicles budding from every level of the Golgi stack in whole cells; however, they comprise two distinct populations that together can account for at least 80% of the(More)
A protease-resistant core domain of the neuronal SNARE complex consists of an alpha-helical bundle similar to the proposed fusogenic core of viral fusion proteins [Skehel, J. J. & Wiley, D. C. (1998) Cell 95, 871-874]. We find that the isolated core of a SNARE complex efficiently fuses artificial bilayers and does so faster than full length SNAREs.(More)
Is membrane fusion an essentially passive or an active process? It could be that fusion proteins simply need to pin two bilayers together long enough, and the bilayers could do the rest spontaneously. Or, it could be that the fusion proteins play an active role after pinning two bilayers, exerting force in the bilayer in one or another way to direct the(More)