Thomas H. Q. Powell

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Speciation with gene flow is expected to generate a heterogeneous pattern of genomic differentiation. The few genes under or physically linked to loci experiencing strong disruptive selection can diverge, whereas gene flow will homogenize the remainder of the genome, resulting in isolated "genomic islands of speciation." We conducted an experimental test of(More)
A major cause for biodiversity may be biodiversity itself. As new species form, they may create new niches for others to exploit, potentially catalyzing a chain reaction of speciation events across trophic levels. We tested for such sequential radiation in the Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex, a model for sympatric speciation via host(More)
Chromosomal inversions are ubiquitous in nature and of great significance for understanding adaptation and speciation. Inversions were the first markers used to investigate the genetic structure of natural populations, leading to the concept of coadapted gene complexes and theories concerning founder effects and genetic drift in small populations. However,(More)
The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) predicts that the success of invasive species is caused by reduced enemy pressure in species’ introduced ranges. The ERH is a highly-cited explanation for invasion success, yet rigorous evidence is lacking for most species and ecosystems. Most evidence comes from observations of enemies in native and introduced ranges.(More)
The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these populations could serve as reservoirs for fruit odor discrimination behaviors facilitating sympatric host race formation and speciation, specifically the recent shift from downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to domestic(More)
The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. In a companion paper, we showed that R. pomonella flies infesting two different mayhaw species (Crataegus opaca and C. aestivalis) can discriminate between volatile blends developed for each host fruit, and that these blends are different from previously(More)
Standing variation can be critical for speciation. Here, we investigate the origins of fruit odor discrimination for Rhagoletis pomonella underlying the fly's sympatric shift in the northeastern United States from downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple (Malus domestica). Because R. pomonella mate on host fruit, preferences for natal fruit volatiles(More)
Studies of related populations varying in their degrees of reproductive isolation can provide insights into speciation. Here, the transition from partially isolated host races to more fully separated sibling species is investigated by comparing patterns of genetic differentiation between recently evolved (∼150 generations) apple and ancestral(More)
Theory predicts that speciation-with-gene-flow is more likely when the consequences of selection for population divergence transitions from mainly direct effects of selection acting on individual genes to a collective property of all selected genes in the genome. Thus, understanding the direct impacts of ecologically based selection, as well as the indirect(More)
Beef semitendinosus roasts were cooked in a forced-air convection oven using conventional or modeled, multi-stage cooking. Conventional cooking was defined as cooking at 163°C to a core endpoint of 65°C. The model method was developed using a finite difference heat and mass transfer model optimized for a three-stage cooking process that included preheating,(More)