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Speciation with gene flow is expected to generate a heterogeneous pattern of genomic differentiation. The few genes under or physically linked to loci experiencing strong disruptive selection can diverge, whereas gene flow will homogenize the remainder of the genome, resulting in isolated "genomic islands of speciation." We conducted an experimental test of(More)
The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these populations could serve as reservoirs for fruit odor discrimination behaviors facilitating sympatric host race formation and speciation, specifically the recent shift from downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to domestic(More)
A major cause for biodiversity may be biodiversity itself. As new species form, they may create new niches for others to exploit, potentially catalyzing a chain reaction of speciation events across trophic levels. We tested for such sequential radiation in the Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) complex, a model for sympatric speciation via host(More)
Standing variation can be critical for speciation. Here, we investigate the origins of fruit odor discrimination for Rhagoletis pomonella underlying the fly's sympatric shift in the northeastern United States from downy hawthorn (Crataegus mollis) to apple (Malus domestica). Because R. pomonella mate on host fruit, preferences for natal fruit volatiles(More)
The enemy release hypothesis (ERH) predicts that the success of invasive species is caused by reduced enemy pressure in species’ introduced ranges. The ERH is a highly-cited explanation for invasion success, yet rigorous evidence is lacking for most species and ecosystems. Most evidence comes from observations of enemies in native and introduced ranges.(More)
Beef semitendinosus roasts were cooked in a forced-air convection oven using conventional or modeled, multi-stage cooking. Conventional cooking was defined as cooking at 163°C to a core endpoint of 65°C. The model method was developed using a finite difference heat and mass transfer model optimized for a three-stage cooking process that included preheating,(More)
The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests apple (Malus domestica) and hawthorn species (most notably the downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis) in the eastern USA. Evidence suggests that the fly was introduced into the western USA sometime in the last 60 years. In addition to apple, R. pomonella also infests two species of hawthorns in the western USA(More)
The apple maggot fly, Rhagoletis pomonella, infests several hawthorn species in the southern USA. In a companion paper, we showed that R. pomonella flies infesting two different mayhaw species (Crataegus opaca and C. aestivalis) can discriminate between volatile blends developed for each host fruit, and that these blends are different from previously(More)
The recent shift of Rhagoletis pomonella (Diptera: Tephritidae) from its native host downy hawthorn, Crataegus mollis, to introduced domesticated apple, Malus domestica, in the eastern United States is a model for sympatric host race formation. However, the fly is also present in the western United States, where it may have been introduced via infested(More)
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