Learn More
The natural steroids estradiol-17beta (E2) and estrone (E1) and the synthetic steroid ethynylestradiol-17alpha (EE2) have frequently been measured in waters receiving domestic effluents. All of these steroids bind to the estrogen receptor(s) and have been shown to elicit a range of estrogenic responses in fish at environmentally relevant concentrations. At(More)
17alpha-Ethinyl estradiol (EE2) is a synthetic estrogen widely used in combination with other steroid hormones in oral contraceptives and in the contraceptive patch. EE2 has been detected in sewage treatment plant effluents in the low nanogram -per-liter range and occasionally in surface waters in the U.S., U.K., Canada, Brazil, Germany, and elsewhere. The(More)
Recognising the scientific and regulatory need for testing relatively hydrophobic or 'difficult substances', the OECD currently recommends that selected organic solvents may be used in aquatic toxicity testing in order to help achieve more effective dispersion of the toxicant. The OECD recommends a maximum solvent concentration of 100 microl l(-1) (with(More)
A number of currently used industrial chemicals are estrogenic, and therefore have potential to disrupt sexual differentiation in vertebrate wildlife during critical developmental windows. We assessed the effect of larval exposure to bisphenol A (BPA) on growth, development and sexual differentiation of the gonad in the African Clawed frog, Xenopus laevis.(More)
The B(II) bioassay was developed as a rapid and reliable tool for detecting potential insect growth regulators acting as ecdysteroid receptor (ant)agonists. Based on an ecdysteroid-responsive cell line from Drosophila melanogaster, this microplate assay is ideally suited to the evaluation of environmental contaminants as potential endocrine disrupters. Data(More)
Conventional nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are associated with acute renal failure, but cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors have not been comparatively evaluated. The authors conducted a nested case-control study to assess the association between exposure to NSAIDs, including cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, and hospitalization for acute renal failure.(More)
The non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) ibuprofen (IB) is a widely used pharmaceutical that can be found in several freshwater ecosystems. Acute toxicity studies with Daphnia magna suggest that the 48h EC(50) (immobilisation) is 10-100 mgIBl(-1). However, there are currently no chronic IB toxicity data on arthropod populations, and the aquatic life(More)
Ibuprofen and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been designed to interrupt eicosanoid metabolism in mammals, but little is known of how they affect nontarget organisms. Here we report a systems biology study that simultaneously describes the transcriptomic and phenotypic stress responses of the model crustacean Daphnia magna after exposure to(More)
The fathead minnow is widely used in ecotoxicological studies and such investigations have begun to focus on potential disruption of the thyroid axis. However, normal levels of thyroxine (T4) and 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) and their developmental patterns are unknown. To provide these baseline data, radioimmunoassays were developed and validated for(More)
Laboratory populations of freshwater Keeled rams horn snails (Planorbis carinatus Muller, 1774) were exposed as adults to measured concentrations of ibuprofen free base (CAS number 15687-27-1) for up to 21 d using methanol (0.1 mL/L) as a carrier solvent. Under flow-through conditions, the 48 and 72 h LC50 values were both 17.1mg/L (95% confidence intervals(More)