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T cell antigen receptor (TCR) and coreceptor ligation is thought to initiate signal transduction by inducing activation of the kinase Lck. Here we showed that catalytically active Lck was present in unstimulated naive T cells and thymocytes and was readily detectable in these cells in lymphoid organs. In naive T cells up to approximately 40% of total Lck(More)
Intercellular Ca2+ waves in astrocytes are thought to serve as a pathway of long-range signaling. The waves can propagate by the diffusion of molecules through gap junctions and across the extracellular space. In rat striatal astrocytes, the gap-junctional route was shown to be dominant. To analyze the interplay of the processes involved in wave(More)
This review provides a comparative overview of recent developments in the modelling of cellular calcium oscillations. A large variety of mathematical models have been developed for this wide-spread phenomenon in intra- and intercellular signalling. From these, a general model is extracted that involves six types of concentration variables: inositol(More)
Coordinated programs of gene expression during cell differentiation can be controlled by master transcription factors. The differentiation of helper T (Th) lymphocytes during the immune response has been shown to occur along alternative pathways designated as Th1 and Th2. Induction of the Th1 and Th2 pathways is associated with the conversely regulated(More)
The expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a key event in T helper (Th) lymphocyte activation, controlling both, the expansion and differentiation of effector Th cells as well as the activation of regulatory T cells. We demonstrate that the strength of TCR stimulation is translated into the frequency of memory Th cells expressing IL-2 but not into the amount(More)
Experimental studies have demonstrated that Ca(2+)-regulated proteins are sensitive to the frequency of Ca(2+) oscillations, and several mathematical models for specific proteins have provided insight into the mechanisms involved. Because of the large number of Ca(2+)-regulated proteins in signal transduction, metabolism and gene expression, it is desirable(More)
  • Ulfert Rand, Melanie Rinas, Johannes Schwerk, Gesa Nöhren, Melanie Linnes, Andrea Kröger +5 others
  • 2012
The cellular recognition of viruses evokes the secretion of type-I interferons (IFNs) that induce an antiviral protective state. By live-cell imaging, we show that key steps of virus-induced signal transduction, IFN-β expression, and induction of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) are stochastic events in individual cells. The heterogeneity in IFN production is of(More)
  • Michael Peine, Sebastian Rausch, Caroline Helmstetter, Anja Fröhlich, Ahmed N. Hegazy, Anja A. Kühl +4 others
  • 2013
Differentiated T helper (Th) cell lineages are thought to emerge from alternative cell fate decisions. However, recent studies indicated that differentiated Th cells can adopt mixed phenotypes during secondary immunological challenges. Here we show that natural primary immune responses against parasites generate bifunctional Th1 and Th2 hybrid cells that(More)
Although cell-to-cell variability has been recognized as an unavoidable consequence of stochasticity in gene expression, it may also serve a functional role for tuning physiological responses within a cell population. In the immune system, remarkably large variability in the expression of cytokine genes has been observed in homogeneous populations of(More)
To understand how multiprotein complexes assemble and function on chromatin, we combined quantitative analysis of the mammalian nucleotide excision DNA repair (NER) machinery in living cells with computational modeling. We found that individual NER components exchange within tens of seconds between the bound state in repair complexes and the diffusive state(More)