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S100B, a calcium-binding protein produced by astroglial cells, mediates paracrine and autocrine effects on neurons and glial cells. It regulates the balance between proliferation and differentiation in neurons and glial cells by affecting protective and apoptotic mechanisms. Post-mortem studies have demonstrated a deficit in synapses and dendrites in brains(More)
RATIONALE Flupentixol (FLX) has been used as a neuroleptic for nearly 4 decades. In vitro data show comparable affinity to dopamine D(2), D(1) and 5-HT(2A) receptors and recently, FLX showed to be not inferior to risperidone in schizophrenic patients with predominant negative symptomatology, which was implicated with flupentixol's interaction with 5-HT(2A)(More)
In the present study the costs of schizophrenia in Germany were studied using the "bottom up" prevalence-based method. In a random sample of 180 schizophrenic patients stratified according to the most important care institutions, direct and indirect costs were retrospectively documented for a 12-month period. Depending on the place of recruitment and the(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis is a chronic, incurable, demyelinating disease that requires long-term treatment. Rates of non-adherence to prescribed therapy of up to 50% have been reported for chronic diseases. Strategies to improve treatment adherence are therefore of the utmost importance. This study will evaluate the effect of using electronic and paper(More)
Flupenthixol, with its broad receptor profile, interacts with a variety of dopamine and serotonin binding sites which are important in the neurobiology of alcohol dependence. Its pharmacology, together with encouraging results from both animal studies and clinical trials with cocaine users, led us to postulate that flupenthixol would significantly prevent(More)
With the computational power of modern smartphones constantly increasing, resource intensive applications are becoming feasible to an ever growing extent. In this paper, we report on a research project recently started. Its aim is to develop an application for smartphones that combines pedestrian and public transport navigation including the computation of(More)
OBJECTIVE The primary aim of this paper was to compare the effects of flupenthixol and risperidone on subjective quality of life and attitude towards medication in chronic schizophrenic patients with mainly negative symptoms. In a spectrum ranging from its typical end "haloperidol" to its atypical end "clozapine", flupenthixol has typical and atypical(More)
INTRODUCTION Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system requiring long-term treatment, which is often hampered by non-adherence to self-applicable therapies, provoking continued disease activity and health care system burdens. This study assessed the influence of a personal digital assistant (PDA) with diary(More)
A study recently finished by our research group elucidated the effectiveness of flupenthixol decanoate (FLX) in maintaining abstinence in detoxified alcoholics. Flupenthixol decanoate is an established antipsychotic drug, which is well known for its mild antidepressant and anxiolytic activity as well as for its minimal sedation at low doses. It blocks(More)
The efficacy of flupentixol and risperidone were compared in a randomized double-blind study in 153 chronic schizophrenic patients. Flupentixol showed to be not inferior to risperidone concerning schizophrenic negative symptoms at week 8, 16 and 24. Positive symptoms and general psychopathology improved comparably, too. There was a trend in favor of(More)