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It is widely recognized that social relationships and affiliation have powerful effects on physical and mental health. When investigators write about the impact of social relationships on health, many terms are used loosely and interchangeably including social networks, social ties and social integration. The aim of this paper is to clarify these terms(More)
PURPOSE There is little empirical translation of multimodal cognitive activity programs in "real-world" community-based settings. This study sought to demonstrate in a short-term pilot randomized trial that such an activity program improves components of cognition critical to independent function among sedentary older adults at greatest risk. DESIGN AND(More)
CONTEXT The stress responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can produce adverse effects on the brain. Previous studies have concluded that an elevated level of cortisol is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction and decline in aging but have been limited by sex exclusion, restricted cognitive batteries, and small sample sizes. OBJECTIVE To(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if long-term exposure to high levels of lead in the environment is associated with decrements in cognitive ability in older Americans. METHODS We completed a cross-sectional analysis using multiple linear regression to evaluate associations of recent (in blood) and cumulative (in tibia) lead dose with cognitive function in 991(More)
The social and behavioral sciences are at a crossroads in public health. In this paper, we attempt to describe a path toward the further integration of the natural and behavioral sciences with respect to the study of behavior and health. Three innovations are proposed. First, we extend and modify the "stream of causation" metaphor along two axes: time, and(More)
OBJECTIVES Increasing age, socioeconomic factors, and declining function and health have been linked to driving cessation, but little is known about the consequences of stopping driving. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that driving cessation leads to a decline in out-of-home activity levels. METHODS In 1989 a survey of driving practices was(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of social support on outcome after first stroke in a prospective cohort study. Although modest evidence exists for the importance of several psychosocial factors, studies have failed to use widely recognized measures of outcome and social support, have failed to control for time since(More)
Lead and homocysteine are both associated with cardiovascular disease and cognitive dysfunction. We evaluated the relations among blood lead, tibia lead, and homocysteine levels by cross-sectional analysis of data among subjects in the Baltimore Memory Study, a longitudinal study of 1,140 randomly selected residents in Baltimore, Maryland, who were 50-70(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Several prognostic factors have been identified for outcome after stroke. However, there is a need for empirically derived models that can predict outcome and assist in medical management during rehabilitation. To be useful, these models should take into account early changes in recovery and individual patient characteristics. We(More)
Before the 1970s, today's older Americans were exposed to high levels of lead in the environment. The authors previously reported that lifetime cumulative lead dose was associated with lower cognitive test performance in older adults. Experiments suggest that environmental stress may intensify the detrimental influence of lead. No large, population-based(More)