Learn More
It is widely recognized that social relationships and affiliation have powerful effects on physical and mental health. When investigators write about the impact of social relationships on health, many terms are used loosely and interchangeably including social networks, social ties and social integration. The aim of this paper is to clarify these terms(More)
PURPOSE There is little empirical translation of multimodal cognitive activity programs in "real-world" community-based settings. This study sought to demonstrate in a short-term pilot randomized trial that such an activity program improves components of cognition critical to independent function among sedentary older adults at greatest risk. DESIGN AND(More)
The social and behavioral sciences are at a crossroads in public health. In this paper, we attempt to describe a path toward the further integration of the natural and behavioral sciences with respect to the study of behavior and health. Three innovations are proposed. First, we extend and modify the "stream of causation" metaphor along two axes: time, and(More)
This report evaluates whether a program for older volunteers, designed for both generativity and health promotion, leads to short-term improvements in multiple behavioral risk factors and positive effects on intermediary risk factors for disability and other morbidities. The Experience Corps(R) places older volunteers in public elementary schools in roles(More)
BACKGROUND Social engagement, which is defined as the maintenance of many social connections and a high level of participation in social activities, has been thought to prevent cognitive decline in elderly persons. However, few longitudinal studies of this relation have been done. OBJECTIVE To determine the relation between social disengagement and(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine any association between social, productive, and physical activity and 13 year survival in older people. DESIGN Prospective cohort study with annual mortality follow up. Activity and other measures were assessed by structured interviews at baseline in the participants' homes. Proportional hazards models were used to model survival(More)
CONTEXT The stress responses of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis can produce adverse effects on the brain. Previous studies have concluded that an elevated level of cortisol is a risk factor for cognitive dysfunction and decline in aging but have been limited by sex exclusion, restricted cognitive batteries, and small sample sizes. OBJECTIVE To(More)
The impact of various types and amounts of social support is examined in the context of recovery from first stroke. We conceptualize the rehabilitation process as a psychosocial transition. In a longitudinal design, 44 patients were followed for 6 months following first stroke. Growth-curve analysis (repeated measures MANOVA) was utilized to examine the(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine if long-term exposure to high levels of lead in the environment is associated with decrements in cognitive ability in older Americans. METHODS We completed a cross-sectional analysis using multiple linear regression to evaluate associations of recent (in blood) and cumulative (in tibia) lead dose with cognitive function in 991(More)
We completed a systematic search of the epidemiologic literature on built environment and obesity and identified 63 relevant papers, which were then evaluated for the quality of between-study evidence. We were able to classify studies into one of two primary approaches for defining place and corresponding geographic areas of influence: those based on(More)